2017/03/20

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

The 1,850 years of Egypt’s Predynastic era (5000 B.C.E.–3150 B.C.E.) were busy times of intense cultural and agricultural development, population growth, widespread settlement, and the adoption of hieroglyphic writing.


Egypt’s population was about 1 million by the time King Narmer united the “two lands” in 3100 B.C.E. The 375 years of the Early Dynastic Period (3000 B.C.E.–2625 B.C.E.) saw the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under strong central rule. During Dynasties 0 to 3 the capital city of Memphis was founded, and Egypt’s huge, bureaucratic government rapidly developed.

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline

Ancient Egyptian History Timeline




The Old Kingdom (2625 B.C.E.–2130 B.C.E.) was the age of the great pyramids. In statues of themselves, Old Kingdom rulers have a calm, god- like peacefulness. They knew they were assured of eternal life. They prob- ably did not care much about everyday, earthly matters or the troubles of the peasants.

They are portrayed speaking directly to the gods and thinking lofty thoughts. They did not hesitate to pour all Egypt’s resources into building lavish tombs for themselves. By the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt’s population had grown to 2 million, mostly extremely poor peasants.

There was general unhappiness with increasingly expensive royal building projects. Powerful, wealthy local rulers started ignoring the king, and splintered Egypt into inde- pendent feudal provinces. Climate changes brought a disastrous series of low Niles, causing crop failures, widespread famine, and the miseries of the First Intermediate Period (2130 B.C.E.–1980 B.C.E.). For 150 years, Egypt suffered chaos, civil war, and famine.

Egyptian History Timeline

The Middle Kingdom (1980 B.C.E.–1630 B.C.E.) was a glorious but restrained era of reform and cultural restoration. In statues of themselves, Middle Kingdom rulers have the worried, care-worn expressions of men facing many real-world problems. They were wealthy and powerful, but also hard workers, running a huge, unwieldy government. They saw what chaos and civil war can do to their country.

They did not want a repeat. For 350 years, Egypt enjoyed peace, prosperity, increased trade, and great practical achievements. The population grew to about 2.5 million. For the first time, Egypt had a middle class.


The Second Intermediate Period (1630 B.C.E.–1539 B.C.E.) brought Egypt’s worst nightmare: rule by foreigners. Another period of climate change and unstable Nile years brought crop failure, famine, and civil disorder. The Hyksos (“rulers of foreign lands”), foreigners of Semitic origin, took advantage and seized the throne, holding it for more than 100 years. 

Because they were foreigners, the Hyksos were hated. But they brought much-needed fresh ideas and cultural innovations to Egypt. After a long, difficult power struggle, a group of princes from the city of Thebes drove the Hyksos from Egypt. 


The New Kingdom (1539 B.C.E.–1075 B.C.E.) was Egypt’s imperial age. At its greatest extent, Egypt’s empire stretched from the fourth cataract of the Nile deep in Nubia all the way to the Euphrates River in Asia. Egypt was powerful and wealthy beyond compare—the world’s first superpower. The imperial pharaohs of the New Kingdom have proud, confident faces.

 They owned the world. They thought extreme- ly highly of Egypt, and even more highly of themselves. No boast was too grand, no monument too large, no conquest too challenging for these mighty pharaohs. For more than 450 years, Egypt, now home  to about 3 million people, was on top of the world. Gold, gifts, plunder, and tribute flowed in like the Nile floods.

But winds of change were blowing. During the 419 years of the Third Intermediate Period (1075 B.C.E.–664 B.C.E.) Egypt’s power weakened and, eventually, the empire came to an end. By around 1000 B.C.E., Egypt was just about bankrupt.


The country splintered into numerous small kingdoms and fiefdoms,  constantly at war. Massive confusion reigned, enabling Egypt’s former colony, Nubia, to seize the throne, which it held for more than 100 years. During Egypt’s Late Period (664 B.C.E.–332 B.C.E.) outside influ- ences and invaders Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Macedonian Greeks dominated Egypt. A dynasty of merchant-kings, the Saites, fell to the Persian Cambyses in 525 B.C.E.

The First Persian Occupation (525 B.C.E.–405 B.C.E.) was an unhappy time. Egypt did not like being part of someone else’s empire. The Egyptians rebelled and won back their inde- pendence for 66 years. Nakhthoreb (also known as Nectanebo II), the last king of the Thirtieth Dynasty, who ruled from 362 B.C.E. to 343 B.C.E., was the last native Egyptian to rule Egypt for 2,300 years, until 1952.

The Second Persian Occupation (343 B.C.E.–332 B.C.E.) was brief and troubled. Egypt longed for a savior. In 332 B.C.E., Alexander the Great drove the hated Persians from Egypt, beginning the Hellenistic (Greek) Pe- riod (332 B.C.E.–323 B.C.E.). The Egyptians considered Alexander a god— the son of their god Amun-Re. In founding the city of Alexandria, Alexander brought Egypt into the greater Mediterranean world. But Egypt’s ancient, native civilization was swiftly passing away.

The Ptolemaic Period (323 B.C.E.–30 B.C.E.) saw the end of ancient Egypt. The Ptolemies, ruling from Alexandria, were greatly influenced by the Greeks, and Greek and Egyptian culture began to blend. In 30 B.C.E., Queen Cleopatra VII committed suicide rather than face defeat by the Romans, and Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.

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2017/03/18

Ancient Egyptian Culture

Egyptian civilization was one of the longest in the west, from about 3000 BC and lasting until about 300 BC The ancient Greeks considered him too young and inexperienced society compared to the Egyptians. But at the same time the amazing thing about the culture of Egypt is that, despite their rapid growth and development, the Egyptians were able to preserve the past and subject to change relatively little over the centuries. Ancient Egypt is the point where the history of Western art begins. For example, the pyramids and the sphinx are not only symbols of Egypt more, but also the expression of artistic genius as a whole.

Ancient Egyptians Culture
Ancient Egyptian Culture



The profession in ancient Egypt was an important factor in defining social class and social stratification manufacturers could be presented as a pyramid. This "social pyramid" consisted of different lines - the bottom were soldiers, farmers, and builders of the tombs, which were in fact the largest percent of the Egyptian population. Then followed by skilled craftsmen, who did everything from coffins carts using very primitive tools.

 Above were the scribes - the Egyptians only one who could read and write, and so had many types of employment opportunities with their duties ranging from writing letters for townspeople, crop recording, keep accounts for the Egyptian army. The following line included more scholarly scribes on higher positions such as priests, doctors, and engineers.

The position of a priest is not limited to religious rights in the temples. It was an activity they did for at least three months each year during which they never left the temple, but other times they worked as judges and teachers. The interesting fact about the medical profession in ancient Egypt is that it has its own hierarchy.


 The Chief Medical Officer of Egypt was at the top, followed by superintendents and inspectors of doctors, which were doctors. The knowledge of medicinal plants and surgical techniques have been well ahead in ancient Egypt, but also part of Egyptian medicine were magic, charms, and spells, with only psychological effects on patients.

The third part of the most learned scribes - the engineers with their knowledge of mathematics and architecture, were responsible for planning and construction of monuments, temples and pyramids of Egypt so that they were not the actual manufacturers but they were in charge of the government involved.


 The upper class were the high priests and nobles appointed by the pharaoh as his assistants, generals and administrators. Together they formed the government. The closest advisor was the vizier of Pharaoh, and of course the top of the social pyramid was the pharaoh who was considered a god on earth rather than just a king.

The ancient Egyptians prospered under what was one of the longest covering civilizations in recorded history with a record of their achievements dating from about 3000 BC through 300 BC Greek Culture which finally conquered ancient Egypt, through the efforts of Alexander the Great and who was in his own right a highly developed culture, constantly referenced Egypt in its literary and historical texts and provided modern historians with a foundation on which to base future studies.


The evidence most famous and widely, Herodotus devotes an entire chapter in his History of Egypt, worthy of the Greeks was of interest that influence non-Western. The interpretation of Herodotus of the Egyptian culture, as many Greeks probably, was a contrast of admiration for an older civilization than the Greeks own, infused with a rich religious history, anxiety and a foreign culture and yet composed of elements that do not align with the Greek state Democratic.


One of the most remarkable legacies of ancient Egypt, it is the integrity of the culture, they have managed to maintain throughout so many centuries, in spite of rapid growth and development. Although much of our sense of culture ahcievements is based on objects from a particular region, southern Egypt, historians tend to agree on the integral quality of the material therein are made.


Ancient Egypt is the point where many art historians like to focus on a period of art at the beginning because of the amount of resources has left us to study. For this reason, the pyramids and the sphinx overlooking famous are not only symbols of Egypt, but also references to the expression of artistic genius as we have just recognized in the history of Western art.  


A sense of preservation of documentation of past society and sustainable by the ancient Egyptians have allowed us to fully appreciate the level of sophistication in their awareness of their cultural and historical significance. Our ideas in the religious rituals and arts of ancient Egypt are stronger than our knowledge of the social and economic characteristics mainly because it is allowing the archaeological record.  

What nature has preserved in Egypt in the form of monuments and tombs is a culture that extends about five thousand years. It is well established in the collective imagination as a site of architectural and artistic splendor and from one region to the great political history.

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2017/03/17

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Lifestyles in ancient Egypt vary greatly. People worshiped many gods like Ra is the sun god, Isis, Thoth, and many others. In ancient Egypt, the pharaoh was at the top of the "pyramid" and his family, noble people who owned land, and the priests came after.The bread was an important part of the kitchen. This bread has been prepared solely from emmer wheat. Different types of meat were available for the elite, like, beef, veal, antelope and gazelle meat.

Ancient Egyptian cuisine also included pulses, chickpeas, cabbage, turnips, lentils and beans. Sometimes vegetables like celery were eaten raw. Fruits also an important part of ancient Egyptian cuisine. The beer was very famous and was the national drink of ancient Egypt.Schools taught reading, writing, mathematics and sports as well as morals and manors. At the age of fourteen, the son of peasants or artisans have joined their fathers in their professions.

Ancient Egypt lifestyle
Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle



Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Ancient Egypt lifestyle

Egyptians liked to make art. The Egyptians made statues, bas-reliefs, paintings, pottery, jewelry, sculptures and coffins. They did the art for gods, kings and queens, and the dead in their graves.The ancient Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens. The Egyptians lived in houses made of bricks. The best known of these pyramids was built for the pharaoh Khufu. It is known as the "Great Pyramid".

Egyptian religion was very ritualistic, involving daily ceremonies. They also had the death rituals and ceremonies. Funeral rituals practiced by the ancient Egyptians understood the embalming and mummification.Formalized ritual and ceremonial dances in which the dancing priest-king represented the person of a god or the servant of his people and regenerator were performed. It is believed that the dance originally started as a way to both mourn the dead and appease the goddess Sekhmet.

The ancient Egyptians depended on natural factors to preserve agricultural land against pollution and loss of fertility. The climate of ancient Egypt was very hot and dry. The ancient Egyptians cultivated and irrigated land near the Nile River.The Nile was used by the ancient Egyptians for many things. They fished for food, wash themselves and their clothes, and fetch water for irrigation, drinking and cooking.

Ancient Egypt was known for its magnificent beauty, exotic perfumes, beautiful clothes, hairstyles and flamboyant perennials. They used soaps, creams and oils for skin care. They used aromatic scents and dramatic hairstyles to fight against the strange heat.The Egyptians had a holistic approach when it comes to eye makeup. On the one hand, it was really delicious and decorative flowers and secondly it was considered to have medicinal properties.

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2017/03/16

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Fishing in ancient Egypt was for sport as well as for food and trade. The Nile constituted most of the fishing area for the Egyptians with an ample amount of fish. The Egyptian diet being based heavily on grains, fish were an easy source of protein for the peasant class.

Some species were considered to be better than other species, such as the Nile Perch and Eel as they were considered sacred to the Nile. Other species eaten by the Egyptians were catfish, carp, mullets, tilapia, elephant-snout fish, tiger fish, and moonfish. The fish would be cleaned and prepared by either pickling, roasting, drying, or by boiling.

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts

Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts



Ancient Egypt Fishing Facts



To catch the fish ,Egyptians used nets, traps or pens, hooks and harpoons. The hooks were simple line and hook format (later using more conventional rod and line format) in which the hook was usually made from bone. The size of the hooks ranged from eight millimeters to eighteen centimeters.

By the 12th Dynasty, metal hooks began to replace bone, and barb and barb-less hooks were used. The use of nets and corralling fish was also done. There were dangers to the fisherman, the Nile crocodile could easily take fish off the lines and also make a quick meal out of any fisherman than fell over board from the canoes.

Fishing was a way for the Egyptians not only to get food but also to relax and enjoy a day by the river. Many tomb paintings show fisherman by the water catching fish and even lazily sitting in chairs by the river. Fish also played a role in temple offerings such as catfish at the temple of Amen.

Ancient Egyptian fisherman and modern day anglers have much in common, even though the technology has gotten better, the methods have stayed relatively the same. Anglers still catch fish for food and sport, the local supermarket sells fish in many of the same ways Egyptians prepared their fish for the market. Fish were a food source, a part of the economy, and a pastime for many young and old.


The ancient Egyptians enjoyed all kinds of sports and one of them is fishing. Fishing was an exciting sport. Meat was not eaten by many farmers, they mostly stuck to bread and beer, vegetables and dried fish. It seems that hunting was reserved for the richest noble. Fishing in Ancient Egypt was one of the sports practiced by kings, princes and commoners.


 There are many drawings of scenes of fishing as a hobby on the Saqqara tombs of the Old Kingdom as much as it is on the monuments of the New Kingdom. The Egyptian Museum includes many types of fishing rods and hooks of various shapes, which indicate the progression of the sport in ancient Egypt.

Many different artifacts such as fishing rods and various types of brackets were found to show the versatility of their equipment. Several photos show fishing in a recreational context. This evidence suggests that Egyptians were the first to fish for fun. Water was another leisure activity of the Egyptians. The Pharaohs boasted of their yachts with more decks containing cabins, kitchens, dining rooms and lounges.

Fishermen using nets and fishing hooks that do not have much to place in a boutique modern fishing equipment. The boats made by the ancient Egyptians included items such as cedar planks and oars, ropes Halfa grass, wooden dowels and battens, and copper staples.
The ancient Egyptians created three types of boats. These are simple reed rafts, wooden boats and boat as papyrus. Simple reed rafts were used for hunting in the marshes. Reed rafts was also used for fishing.


Wooden boats generally replaced papyrus rafts for Nile travel, and as they were faster and more stable than rafts, they were also used for transportation. The third type of boat was the boat as papyrus, their shape reflects royalty and gods. These ships were used as pleasure boats and transport also for royalty. These ships were also used for funeral and burial purposes.

A group of people wading in the ocean somewhere where it was quite shallow, and when they were as far as the fish they spread out on the net, and walk forward, and then the men walked to the end other and close the net, and they would all boil down to the coast. Fish are much more abundant in the Nile as they are today.


But true fisherman face real dangers. There were species of catfish of a toxic and most dreaded enemy of all, the crocodile. If a boat has capsized, there was a real risk of being devoured by the monster of the Nile. However, fishing was also a time for fun. Some tomb paintings showing fisherman fun trying to hustle each other with their fishing rods.

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2017/03/14

Ancient Egypt Frog

Frogs, as creatures of the underworld, symbolized the creation of life. The original male deities of Hermopolis were often depicted with frog heads and the frog was the holy animal of the goddess of birth Heqat. In the Khontamenti temple at Abydos many little frogs made of faience and stone were found, votive offerings to Heqat. A frog also accompanied the god of the Nile. The amphibians certainly were great friends of the water. As Ankhsheshonq had it in his Instruction:

The frog goddess Heqet was often shown as a frog-headed woman or as a frog. Because the Egyptians saw that there were many frogs, all appearing from the Nile, they associated the frog with fertility and resurrection, and so Heqet was a goddess of childbirth. The four male primeval gods of the Ogdoad - Nun (water), Amen (invisibility), Heh (infinity) and Kek (darkness) - were all frog gods.

Heqet (Heqat, Heket) was a goddess of childbirth and fertility in Ancient Egypt. She was depicted as a frog, or a woman with the head of a frog. The meaning of her name is not certain, but possibly derived from the word "heqa" meaning "ruler" or "sceptre". Frogs symbolised fruitfulness and new life, and it is thought that the her priestesses were trained midwives.

Ancient Egypt Frog

 Ancient Egypt Frog


Ancient Egypt Frog



Ancient Egypt Frog

Ancient Egypt Frog


According to one tradition, she was the wife of Khnum, the creator god of Abu (Elephantine). He created each person on his potter's wheel, and she breathed life into them before they were placed in their mother's womb. Heqet and Khnum are depicted on Hatshepsut's birth colonnade in her Mortuary Temple at Deir el Bahri.

Heqet holds an ankh (symbolising life) to the infant Hatshepsut and her ka. According to another tradition, She was the wife of Heh and it was he who crafted each person before she brought life to them. Finally, she was sometimes considered to be the wife of Horus the elder, although as a form of Hathor she was also his mother.

Pregnant women wore amulets depicting Heqet for protection, and during the Middle Kingdom ritual ivory knives and clappers inscribed with her name were used to ward off evil during childbirth. She could also bring on labour and offer protection during labour. Heqet assisted in this manner in the deliverance of three fifth dynasty kings, according to a myth recorded in the Westcar papyrus in the Story of the birth of the three pharaohs which appears at the end of the tale of "Khufu and the Magicians".

She was also involved in the resurrection of the deceased. In the pyramid texts she assists the pharaoh as he makes his way to the eternal stars sky and is depicted beneath the funeral beir of the deceased Osiris in Denderah. There was a Ptolemaic temple to Heqet at Qus, but only one pylon remains. There is also a reference to a temple at Her-wer in a tomb at Tuna el-Gebel, but so far this temple has not been found.

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Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt


  The blue lotus is a water lily that is also known as the sacred lily of the Nile. In Egyptian mythology, the blue lotus was a symbol of the sun, as the flowers close at night and open in the morning. Sacred Blue Lily of the Nile was held in very high esteem by the ancient Egyptians Ancient Egyptians, Nubians, Abyssinians, and any number of historic African civilizations.

Also highly respected and by Indians and in Buddhism. It was worshipped as a visionary plant and was a symbol for the origins of life. Traditionally, it was drank after being soaked in warm water or wine, while a cigarette made of the dried flowers was smoked. Is said to produce a feeling of joy that permeates the whole body, emanating from every cell. Sacred Blue Lily of the Nile is a fantastic smoke and the best part is it can be blended to add flavor to your favorite blends.

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

 Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt



Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

 
Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt

Sacred Lily of Ancient Egypt



Nymphaea Caerulea (Blue Lotus or Sacred Blue Lily of the Nile) was the most sacred plant of Ancient Egypt, prized above all others. Nymphaea Caerulea (Blue Lotus) was worshipped as a visionary plant and was a symbol for the origins of life. It was frequently depicted in works of art, where it is most often shown in party and other social scenes, and sometimes in scenes of sexual debauchery.

The flowers were noted for their delightful perfume, suggestive of the sweat of Ra; 'A divine essence, for bringing euphoria, heightened awareness and tranquility'. The Blue Lily was also a symbol of creation, and was according to legend the first object to emerge from oceanic chaos. Though exceedingly rare in the wild today it is thought to have been widespread across Ancient Egypt, where its psychoactive properties were apparently well known.

I had known about the Blue Lotus for quite awhile but became especially interested in the psychoactive properties of the plant and the connection to the ancient Egyptians as my interest and knowledge on the subject of ancient civilizations and mysticism evolved. Well last week I decided to try it out and purchased a 10gr bag at the local smartshop (head shop) in Utrecht, Netherlands.

After reading up about the Blue Lotus I decided to soak the dried flowers in red wine for about an hour and then consume the mixture. Apparently this is the method the ancient Egyptians used and the best way to ingest the sacred plant. After about half an hour I began to notice some mild sedative effects and a light euphoria but this was very subtle and somewhat clouded by the wine.

After consuming 5gr of lotus and half a bottle of wine I realized that drinking the wine with the lotus had been a mistake, I felt the effects of the Lotus -dreamy, sedated, and tranquil- but the feeling was not optimal or pure because of the wine. I smoked a joint and felt a definite opiate like high though very mild. I slept very deeply and woke refreshed.

I was a little disappointed but I still had half a bag left of the Blue Lily and so the next night I decided to boil the flowers in water and drink the mixture as tea. I figured that without the wine I would be able to feel the effects of the Lotus properly. I drank three cups of tea and ate the remaining flowers, bitter but edible.

The effect this time was stronger; gradually I felt a light buzz and soft glowing all over my body, my muscles relaxed and my mood definitely lifted. Although the effects are not overwhelming, they are pleasant and I’m sure they resemble the effects of opium. I enjoyed the dreamy space I found myself in, definite psycho-active effects, mind stimulation and a mild spiritual mystic effect.

The psycho-active effects of Blue Lotus are mild and subtle and a lot must be consumed in order to really appreciate this plant. Blue Lotus is definitely sedative but also tranquil and I can easily see why the ancient Egyptians used this drug at parties and social occasions, the Blue Lotus would also have been used by Priests to seek contact with the gods, for spiritual practices and as a pain-killer, sleeping-aid and all round wonder-herb. I found the effects similar to Valerian, GHB, and marijuana.

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