2015/10/22

Ancient Egyptians Education and learning

 In ancient Egypt the world of the child was not as clearly separated from that of adults because it tends to be in modern Western society. Over the years by childish pastimes would give rise to imitations of adult behavior. Children are more frequently is a hand with tasks lighter and gradually acquire skills and practical knowledge of their elders.
Ancient Egyptians Education and learning
Ancient Egyptians Education and learning

 By precept and example, parents do not teach them various educational principles, moral attitudes and views of life. Thus from a tender age, they would receive their basic education in the family. For girls, it was usually all the schooling they receive, but for boys it would be supplemented by appropriate training in any line they chose or was chosen for them.

 
Education, of course, covers both general education of a child and his training for a particular profession. The education of boys was left largely in the hands of their fathers, and girls entrusted to their mother. Parents are familiar with their children their ideas about the world, with their religious, with their ethical principles, with correct behavior toward others and toward the supernatural beings in whom everyone believed. They taught them folk rituals and so on.

 
Educational principles are summarized in a number of treaties ancient Egyptians now commonly called the instruction books. The advice given in them was designed to ensure personal success consonant with the needs of the state and the moral standards of the day.
 
Truth and fair were enjoined not on absolute grounds, but also socially desirable and at the same time most advantageous for the individual lies and injustice, whose consequences would turn against their author. Instruction books contain rules for the well-ordered life and elements of morality such as justice, wisdom, obedience, humanity and restraint.


 
They have mostly taken the form of verses addressed by a father to his son as he entered his shoes and began to help his aging parents. Similar warnings were delivered by a king to his heir. Most of these books were compiled by senior officials: humbler scribes, like Ant, only played a role in later times.  Many copies were made of these instruction books, since they also served as teaching texts in schools of scribes. Complete in September and five partial texts have survived, while the existence of others is known from fragments. He seems to be the oldest is by the famous vizier, architect and physician in the third dynasty pharaoh Djoser. This text has not survived, but it is mentioned in the song of Stephen Harper in the tomb of King lnyotef. Another is the instruction Compiled by the Noble and Royal Prince Hordjedef for His Son.  


The two authors of these ancient books were held in the esteem of a nature to be deified. Other educational treatises perhaps 3 is the most important instruction Ptahhotep, City Administrator and Prime Minister during the reign of His Majesty Djedkare Isesi, ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt during the 5th Dynasty. The following passages deal with the art of "word elegant and efficient."  You should only speak when you are sure you know your subject. He who wishes to speak in Council Should a word-smith. Speaking is harder than any other task and only credit the man with a perfect control ...

 
Be careful when you open your mouth. Your every utterance must be exceptional, so that the mighty men who listen, you say, "How beautiful are the words that fly from his lips"
 
Nevertheless Ptahhotep fair rate higher learning: You can tell a wise man of his breadth of knowledge, a noble man by his good deeds. Unlike the hierarchical structure of Egyptian society at the time the injunction to respect the opinions and knowledge of ordinary people is quite a democratic ring:


 
Do not boast of your knowledge, but seek advice from the uneducated as much as the well-educated.


 
Wise words are rarer than precious stones and can come even from slave-girls grinding corn.


 
Ptahhotep urges readers to exercise justice and warns against intriguing for self-aggrandizement, corruption, extortion of debts of those who are unable to pay and insatiable accumulation of goods. His manual abounds in concrete advice on how to behave in various situations - at banquets, in the performance of high office, to friends, wives, petitioners, paupers and so on. The spiritual climax is reached in this kind of Amenemope in Education at the end of the second millennium BC, some of which are very comparable with passages in the Old Testament book of Proverbs. It includes, for example, this call for justice and tolerance towards the poor and widows:


  
Do not ove terminal in the field, or pass the rope of the Surveyor; not covet a cubit of your neighbor's land, or touch the widow land boundaries. Covet not the poor farmer of property, not hunger after his bread; piece of the peasant will surely gag in the throat and the revolt of the esophagus.  If the poor man is a debt you owe, divide it three ways, two sides back and let stand third. This, you will see, is the best way in this life and thereafter, you can sleep sound and in the morning, it will be as good news because it is better to be praised for love of neighbor rather than having wealth in your pantry, enjoy your bread with a good conscience than having wealth overwhelmed by the accusations.


 
Never let a powerful man bribe you to oppress a weakness for his own benefit. There is a taste similar to Christian morality where Amenemope urges consideration toward the afflicted:


 
Mock not the blind nor deride the dwarf nor block the path of the cripple, do not tease a man sickened by a god, nor make outcry when he is wrong. In the surprisingly developed moral code revealed by these excerpts, virtue will be rewarded for reasons that can be summarized as follows: behave justly toward your god, your king, your superiors and your subordinates too, and in return you can enjoy the health, long life and respect.


 
For judging the dead, God will deal with you based on your past conduct. Those you leave behind, too, will be pleased to recognize your good deeds by reciting life-giving words and bearing gifts to ensure eternal life ... The ultimate goal of the Egyptian legal system was to help maintain harmony and order in the world God created and maintained by the king.
 
Alongside the inculcation of general rules of morality there was, of course, formal vocational training. Young men do not generally choose their own careers. Herodotus and Diodorus explicitly refer to hereditary vocations in ancient Egypt.


 
It was not actually a system of rigid inheritance but an effort, as a pillar of the Middle Kingdom, it is, to switch the function of a father to his children. Several other sources confirm that this has happened with the consent of the king or his plenipotentiaries. Thus we find throughout Egyptian history a tendency for even the highest offices to remain in the same families.


 
Towards the end of the Middle Kingdom, for example, there was an almost dynastic line of viziers, and the Ramesside period in the offices of the supreme priests of Amun were passed from father to son. It was certainly common practice for an officer to take on his son as assistant. so that the estate has become more or less automatic. This was also the involvement of the common rule at Royal. A son was commonly called "the staff of old age his father," designed to assist it in carrying out its functions and, finally, to succeed him. Although the instructions state that Ant offices do not have descendants.


 
From an early age, they would go to the fields, boys and girls, to lend a hand during simple tasks such as gathering and winnowing corn, tending the poultry and cattle of time, and so on. Fishermen, boatmen and others also take their young with them practical experience. Pictures of craftsmen at work, on the other hand, rarely show the children present. It is one of a boy leaving a leg of meat at a butcher; other examples show a boy helping an older man to smooth a ceramic vessel, and a boy playing in a row of musicians .



 Young people in the military were used as grooms and Batmen. Writings of the Roman period contain interesting data on the training of weavers and girls spinning. A test was probably given at the end of learning. At that time weavers often sent their children to be taught by colleagues in the same trade. The teacher began, if it has not been able to get his student throughout the course, to return any payment, the father had advanced learning.

 
Kingdom each scribe taught his successor - usually his son - individually. From the First Intermediate Period there is evidence of entire classes run for trainees in this field. In the New Kingdom they existed in the capital of Thebes (there was one in the Ramesseum, for example, and a second so-called Deir el-Medina) and the last time these institutions were run in d other centers also. It was of course not real schools in the direction of independent organizations with full-time teachers. All the main offices such as the royal chancelleries and military headquarters.


 
The ancient Egyptians nevertheless held education in high regard and he saw it as a privilege. A few talented individuals with no formal schooling still managed to acquire sufficient knowledge to shine in their own field. And of course there were many who tried, as everywhere, to compensate for their lack of education or currying favor intriguing in high places, sometimes as high as royalty.


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