Tutankhamun Ivory headrest with god Shu

Tutankhamun Ivory headrest with god Shu

God Shu covers the pillar of this headrest, he is represented with upraised arms lifting the arch of the headrest which symbolizes the sky goddess “Nut”. He rests on the representation of the earth (or Geb), which forms the base of the headrest.

  Ivory headrest with god Shu of Tutankhamun

 The Sa sign of protection is hung at his shoulders. The two parts of the headrest are connected by means of metal pegs. Flanking Shu we can see two lions, symbolizing the Akhet sign with the two mountains and the sun rising in between, sign of resurrection and rebirth, also they could represent the Aker lions (the eastern and western mountains). 

Each lion has a tuft of hair on its shoulder which could have been a seal to mark that they belong to a specific king’s court.

The tomb of King Tut

The tomb of King Tutankhamun

The tomb, located in an area that was not normally used for royal burials in the center of the valley, was apparently quickly buried deep below the surface of the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of Luxor (ancient Thebes ). It was forgotten until Howard Carter discovered November 4, 1922. Part of the chance of Howard Carter is that he was not discovered earlier when his predecessor in the Valley, Theodore Davis, who was American, came just over a meter to find him itself.

It is a little known fact that Howard Carter did not search all parts of the valley of the King, down to bedrock in his search for Tutankhamun. After identifying the area in the center of the valley, most likely to produce the kind of find his patron desired; and who would indeed do so, for many years before he seems to have spent much of his efforts to find answers to many questions most academic, such as hunting for foundation deposits - in order to clarify that the king was actually responsible for the construction of this tomb, and did hard in his search for Tutankhamun's tomb, when it became clear that his source of funds could be about to dry up.

Howard Carter was said, before finding the grave, that Lord Carnarvon was withdrawing from the project, but after pleading his case, was given one more season of excavation in order to find it.In fact, we are told that, after having first discovered the steps of the tomb on November 4th, Carter initially telegraphed Lord Carnarvon, who was still at his estate in England Hampshire, after which Carter filled the stairs to wait the arrival of his benefactor. Upon arrival of Lord Carnarvon on November 24, work resumed on November 26 and inside was observed for the first time since antiquity.

After its discovery, the worldwide media spectacle the discovery created films about the curse of the mummies that are still produced every so often, is probably as interesting as the tomb itself. Many people do not realize is that it took Carter, with attention to detail, a decade to fully explore, excavate and clear the tomb. Legend has it that Carter posted the first notice of the discovery of the tomb on the bulletin board at the Old Winter Palace Hotel in Luxor.
Tutankhamen was certainly not one of the greatest of Egyptian pharaohs. In fact, before the discovery of his tomb in 1922, little of his life was known. Today we know much more about this king, but surprisingly little of this knowledge comes the treasures of his tomb. Tutankhamun died around 1325 BC, after only nine years of rule. Apparently, he died suddenly quite as good a royal tomb, to our knowledge, has never been prepared for this pharaoh. Instead, the tomb of Tutankhamen is relatively small and follows a more frequently in non-royal tombs. Some scholars believe that the tomb that King Ay was eventually interred in was actually begun for Tutankhamen.

In fact, the tomb of Tutankhamun is not as interesting as other tombs in the Valley of the Kings. It consists of an entrance leading to a single corridor, followed by several annexes for funerary equipment. At a 90 degree right angle is the small burial chamber, with another annex attached bringing in the direction of the entrance. It's not much of a tomb compared to other royal tombs, and most of all burial materials will not be found here, but rather in the Egyptian Museum of Antiquities in Cairo, if it is nowhere else on the show.

Only the burial chamber received decorations. Here, all the walls have the same origin gold. On the west wall we find scenes depicting apes in the first hour of the Amduat. On the south wall the king is followed by Anubis as he appears before Hathor. Here, there is also a scene of King being welcomed into the underworld by Hathor, Anubis and Isis. The north wall shows King beforeNut with the royal ka embracing Osiris. On the same wall, there is also the scene of Ay performing the opening of the mouth ritual before the mummy of Tutankhamun. Finally, on the east wall, Tutankhamun's mummy is depicted being pulled on a sled during the funeral procession. In the procession are two viziers to the king, and a third person who might be Horemheb.It should be noted that this tomb was not found intact. In fact, there were at least two flights of the tomb, perhaps soon after Tutankhamen's burial, probably by members of the tomb workers.


Tutankhamun sistrum

The sistrum or  Ritualistic Rattles of Tutankhamun

Historical Background

The word Sistrum originates from the Greek verb σείω, seio meaning to shake and it was called in ancient Egyptian language “sSSt”. The ancient Egyptian word could be derived from the sound the instrument makes.

Tutankhamun sistrum

It is a musical instrument shaped like the anx; it was mainly used in religious rituals.  According to early historians, its origin is unknown. It is attested in Egypt since at least the Old Kingdom. Scenes found on walls show it in the hands of priests and priestesses while performing musical rites, while the king played it in temple rituals standing before the gods.

Categories of musical instruments in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptian knew three categories of musical instruments:
1.     Percussion instruments e.g. Sistrum, clappers, tambourine (drums nowadays)
2.     Wind or blowing instruments e.g. trumpet (flute, oboa …. Nowadays)
3.     String instruments e.g. harp (guitar, oud, violin nowadays)

There were two identical sistra, found on one of the funerary beds (the one with head of a cow) in the Antechamber. They were probably used during real life as indicated by signs of wear on the inside of the arch. It is possible that they were used during the burial ritual of Tutankhamun then left on the funerary bed.

The sistrum was believed to magically produce the universal harmony heard only by the gods. It is considered a magical object for Hathor due to the rustling sound that the cow goddess caused while walking through the marshes. This sound was supposed to placate the gods and goddesses. The sistrum is predominantly a female instrument although it was also used by priests, kings and associated with a male diety (Bes).

The material:

The octagonal handle is made out of wood covered with gold leaf. It takes the shape of Ankh sign, the upper part (arch) is made out of metal covered with gold leaf. There are 3 serpent-like metal rods, with 3 square metal jangles running through them. These make music (jingling sound) when shaken. The height is about 1 foot.

Gods and goddesses associated with the sistrum are:
1.     Isis
2.     Hathor
3.     Bes
4.     Bastet (as it was given to her by Isis)
5.     Ihy, son of Hathor (He was represented as a naked child holding the sistrum).

Who was King Tutankhamun

Who was King Tutankhamun
 Who exactly was King Tut, known during his lifetime as Tutankhuaten (or Tutankhaten), reflecting its roots Amarna, and later as Tutankhamen, reflecting a return to traditional religion of Egypt? Despite the richness of his burial, Tutankhamun remains a bit of an enigmatic, although it has been the subject of much research. Presumably he was born in Akhetaten (now el-Amarna), during the second half of the reign of Akhenaten, the heretic king who tried to establish a radical departure from traditional Egyptian religion. We believe he died in his late teens, judging by various analyzes of his mother.

Who was King Tutankhamun

Although his royal line has sometimes been questioned, an inscription discovered at El-Ahsmunein across the river el-Amarna Tutankhuaten confirms that (as he was known then) was indeed the son of a king. It is not surprising, the official policy during the reign of the child seems to have been to emphasize its association with Amenhotep III, who is presumed to be her grandfather. Given the absence of a long co-regency between Amenhotep III and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten later), it must be likely that Tutankhamun was the son of the latter.
Although it seems that Akhenaten must have been the father of Tutankhamun, the evidence is much less of his mother. However, some degree of informed speculation is possible.

 For example, we can probably eliminate Nefertiti, because it seems to have provided her husband, Akhenaten, no son. Of course, it was not his wife alone. Among the king's secondary wives and concubines, one in particular stands out. She is Lady Kiya, identified by some with the Tadukhepa Mitannian princess, daughter of Tushratta, sent to Egypt to cement the treaty relations between the two countries at the beginning of the reign. Kiya is particularly important in the case sculptural el-Amarna and his peculiar position in favor of the king is reflected in its title single, "Beloved Woman." In a number of reliefs Amarna, Kiya is shown with a daughter. Many people think it could have also borne a son. chronological considerations in no way exclude the possibility. There are indications that Kiya was a favorite of the court before the Amarna nine and ten years of Akhenaten's reign, but after eleven years at the time of the birth of Tutankhamun, it disappears from the record and its monuments in el-Amarna were affected by Nefertiti, the daughter of Meritaten.

 One possible explanation is that Kiya died in childbirth, as a scene of mourning fragmentary in the tomb of Akhenaten may suggest. However, it is also possible that Kiya fell from grace, the victim of court intrigues designed by Nefertiti jealous. Indeed, there may be no coincidence that the meteoric rise of the state of Nefertiti seems to have begun in earnest after the disappearance of Kiya. Regardless of the identity of his mother, Tutankhamun ascended the throne in about 1333 BC, and a young child still burdened with the name, Tutankhaten. He married Ankhesenpaaten, the girl a little older third of Akhenaten and Nefertiti, a match can be done to unite the royal factions. It would rule Egypt for only nine years, but there can be little doubt that for most of that time, the reigns of government was firmly in the hands of others, such as Ay, and his successor may be a relative of the king, and General Horemheb, Ay who succeeded to the throne.

 Concrete facts related to the reign of Tutankhamun are few, but it is clear that the main event of his reign related to the restoration of traditional Egyptian religion, and the relocation of the capital at Memphis and the restoration of the religious center
countries in Thebes. When the royal couple abandoned the "Aten" the forms of their name during the second year of King, he said the official reappearance of Amon, away from the worship of Aton, and the traditional pantheon . Promulgated by a decree in Memphis and recorded in the retrospective of the "Stele of restoration", this event marks a reign as pivotal to the further development of Egyptian history.

So while it is often said that a king Tutankhamun was relatively insignificant (we too have been guilty of this), despite the wealth of his tomb, his reign was not. The changes that were made were his, Ay or Horemheb, his was a very important moment in the history of Egypt.

Princess Khnumit Diadem

Diadem of Princess Khnumit with Gold Vulture

This diadem, or royal headband, is formed of a series of horizontal and vertical decorations made of gold with inlays of semiprecious stones and glass paste.

Each horizontal element is composed of a rosette flanked by two bell-shaped flowers heavily inlaid with carnelian, turquoise, and lapis lazuli.

This decoration is repeated eight times. Two delicate ornaments were applied to the front and back of the diadem.

Princess Khnumit Diadem

The first is the branch of a tree. It is formed with a small gold tube onto which gold leaves were fused alternating with small flowers.

The second ornament depicts the vulture goddess, Nekhbet, with her wings outspread as a sign of protection. She has two Shen signs, which symbolize eternity, gripped in her talons.

General Undjedbauendjed Pectoral

This pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, is hung on a string of 64 gold and 30 carnelian beads. It is shaped like a pylon, or gateway to the temple.
General Undjedbauendjed Pectoral
General Undjedbauendjed Pectoral

The center scene shows a resin scarab dragging the Djed pillar of the god Osiris behind it. The center scene is flanked by the two cartouches of the king. At the top of the cartouches, there are pictures of two sacred Udjat eyes and two uraei, or royal cobras, for protection. The whole scene is protected by representations of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys.

Tutankhamun Ornate Rings

 Three Ornate Rings of Tutankhamun

Wrapped together in a package, placed above the right wrist of Tutankhamun's mummy, were five rings, three of which are illustrated here : (a) Particular interest attaches to the material of this ring. It is a green translucent stone, which Carter thought was chalcedony. However, scientific tests carried out by Alfred Lucas, the chemist who assisted Carter in his work at the tomb, proved that neither a steel point nor quartz would mark it and that the stone itself did not scratch glass. He therefore deduced that it was probably nephrite, and not jadeite, as he had once supposed.

Nepthrite is not a stone that is known to exist in Egypt or in any country of the Middle East; all the sources at present are located in either Europe or the Far East.. In view of its hardness it is not surprising that the figures are so roughly engraved in the two cartouches that form the bezel.The king himself, wearing the blue khepresh helmet with streamers and a triangular kilt with apron, is shown in the right-hand cartouche. His throne name, followed by the words "given life", is written in a separate cartouche inside the main cartouche.

Ornate Rings of Tutankhamun

He stands before the ithyphallic god Min of Coptos, who wears the same kind of plumed headdress as Amun, and holds a flail in his right hand. Beneath the flail is a single blue lotus flower with a long stem.Min was an ancient god of vegetation and fertility whose cult was suppressed by Akhenaton when he closed the temples of all the gods except Aton. Tutankhamun revived the cult and reinstated its priesthood.

(b) The cartouche-shaped bezel of this ring bears a three-dimensional device. In this respect it is not unique among the rings from this tomb, but it is certainly the most elaborate of the fifteen rings found on the mummy. The central feature is a scarab of either lapis lazuli or blue glass with an atef crown on its head; two uraei with solar disks are mounted near the tips of the horns at the base of the crown. In front of the scarab is the lunar bark bearing the disk of the moon and its crescent. At the back, protecting the scarab with its outspread wings, is the falcon of Horus with sun's disk holding the shen sign in each talon, all in closionne-work; the inlay is of lapis lazuli, feldspar, and carnelian.

Supporting the bezel are terminals with floral motifs, each consisting of a papyrus flower flanked by poppy buds, the stems of which form the tripartite loop of the ring. All three stems are made of gold and the two on the outside, which are those of the poppy buds, are inlaid with blue glass. Beneath the gold bezel, on the inner surface of the ring, are engraved the king's throne name and titles and the epithet "beloved of Thoth."

(c) The finely carved scarab that forms the bezel of this ring is made of chalcedony, a stone found in several places in Egypt both east and west of the Nile. Engraved on the base is a figure of the god Thoth, ibis-headed, with a lunar disk and crescent on his head. In his out-stretched left hand he holds an udjat eye and in his right hand he holds the ankh sign. The milky color of the stone is particularly suitable for the moon-god and very probably it was chosen for that reason.

 Besides being the moon-god, Thoth was also the patron deity of writing, magic, and wisdom, and it was he who restored to Horus the eye that he lost in his fight with Seth, the murderer of his father, Osiris. Although Horus is not represented on this scarab, Thoth's action in holding out the eye is an allusion to its return to Horus in accordance with the legend.

The Fans of Tutankhamun

The Fans of Tutankhamun
The fan was a sign of royalty and carried in processions behind the pharaoh to protect him from the sun. Several were also sometimes fixed to the sides of the throne. The position of “His Majesty’s fan bearer” was one of the most sought after positions in the royal court. Moreover, in a country as hot as Egypt, the presence of fans was an utter necessity.

The Fans of Tutankhamun

The Fans of Tutankhamun

There were two types of fans known in ancient Egypt:
1.     Private fans: to be held by the person himself.
2.     Tall ceremonial fans: were made of gilded wood and had ostrich feathers. They were used in courts or wars or in royal processions and religious ceremonies held by fan bearers in order to provide the king with cool breeze.

In the tomb of Tutankhamun we found 8 fans, 7 of them tall ones and one private ostrich feather fan. They were found in between the Burial Chamber, the Annexe and the Treasury.

Tutankamun's Ceremonial Fan


Tutankhamun Fan


Ceremonial Ostrich Fan


Ebony Fan of Tutankhamun


Gilded Ceremonial Fan of Tutankhamun


The Ebony Ceremonial Fan of Tutankhamun



The National Museum in Port Said

 The National Museum in Port Said

 The National Museum in Port Said

The National Museum has a variety of presentations covering all of Egyptian history. The museum, which opened at the port in 1987 and shows in the 1st Floor covering prehistory and the Pharaonic era, including many of the mummies and coffins side by side with various statues and other artifacts.  

The following are the floor in the Islamic and Coptic materials, including manuscripts, textiles and coins, as well as artifacts from the family Kdioip. The museum is open from 9 AM until 4 PM, but usually closes for lunch.

Museum of Mohamed Khalil

It is locating in Giza , Egypt.Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil, one of the public figures that have influenced heavily on the movement of fine arts during the second quarter of the 20th century. He was born in 1877 and died in 1953. In 1901, he went to France to study law at the University of Sorbone. In 1903, he married Mrs. Emiline Lock, who was studying music at the Conservatory in Paris. She shared his interests in fine arts, painting in particular. In 1937, and oversaw the Egyptian pavilion at the International Exhibition in Paris. 

From 1938-1940, and was President of the Senate Masri. Mr. Khalilzad, and Prince Youssef Kamal co-founder of the Art Lovers Society, and Mr. Khalil became president of the Association 1942-1952. In 1960, died after his wife donated the palace and its contents from antiques and rare artifacts of the state to become a museum, bearing the name of Mohammed Mahmoud Khalil and his wife.

Museum of Mohamed Khalil

Museum of Mohamed Khalil

Mohamed Mahmoud Khalil’s palace was constructed in Giza around 1920, on the French style (Ardico), which was well known in France at that time. The eastern side of the palace, overlooking the Nile, carries some features of the (Arnoveau) Style that appeared in France in 1875, as evident from the metal and glass skeleton above the entrance of the palace.

The surface area of the palace is 1400 squared meters, and the palace has four levels. The palace was inaugurated for the first time as a museum on July 23rd,1962. The museum was moved to the Prince Amr Ibrahim’s palace in Zamalek, Cairo, in July 1971. After remodeling, the museum was moved back to Mr. Khalil’s palace in September 1995.

Sennari House In Cairo

 Sennari House In Cairo Home to Napoleon's Scholars

While Beit El-Sennari was built in 1794 by Ibrahim Katkhuda El-Sennari, a Sudanese occultist, it is famous for another reason. In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt bringing with him an army of scientists, scholars and artists to establish a French culture base in Egypt. Soon, they began their mission of making the first European study of Egypt which they published as Le description de l'Egypte. Beit El Sennari was used to house many of the French artists and scholars at the time. It became the center of the French study of Egypt, and therefore a very important monument to early Egyptology.

The house was allowed to deteriorate until, in 1995, the first restoration of it was undertaken. It had suffered much from neglect, air pollution and subterranean water damage. It was also severely damaged during an earthquake in 1992.  However, because of the efforts of the Egyptian government with French assistance, it was faithfully restored and opened to the public in 2000, though some restoration work continues. Beit El Sennari is not well known by many tourists who visit Egypt. Situated on a small lane named Haret Monge, just off of a downtown street called Khairat, there are very few tourism attractions nearby. Perhaps the easiest way of reaching it is by using the metro to go to Sa'ed Zaghloul Station.

 Sennari House In Cairo Home to Napoleon's Scholars

 Sennari House In Cairo Home to Napoleon's Scholars

This was exactly what I did. After leaving the metro I had to walk for about 15 minutes before reaching the house. All the people I asked didn’t know Beit El Sennari or even Haret Monge Street. I kept walking until I reached the Sayeda Zeinab Mosque and square. There, I found a very old man sitting on a chair next to a shoe store, who knew Beit El Sennari.

I walked in Haret Monge for a couple of minutes before I found myself next to a very beautiful mashrabeya window to my right. I knew then that I had reached Beit El Sennari because there aren’t any other older Islamic sites in the area. This mashrabeya screen looked older than many of the other screens I have seen. Under this screen, there is the original door to the house but it is closed these days. One must enter the house through a small door to the side of the mashrabeya screen.

 Sennari House In Cairo Home to Napoleon's Scholars

Upon making my way through this door, I found myself in an old garden that I found out later was the main garden of the house. Here, I found many old palm trees, along with some construction work, as the  museum is still under restoration. I began looking around and found many brown mashrabeya windows all around the house but I was lost as I didn’t know where to begin my exploration.

Suddenly a cute girl appeared asking me what I wanted. I suppose, due to the small number of tourists visiting this place, she didn’t understand that I just wanted to tour the house. I did have to buy a ticket, which costs one pound for Egyptians and five for foreign tourists. Then she showed me the way into the house.

Inside, what struck me first is that I was the only visitor. There wasn't another person in the house, so I was free to roam about, unimpeded by any tourists. At first, I found myself in the open air hall usually found in old Islamic houses and called a sahn. Typically, the rest of the house surrounds this open courtyard, and it was used, particularly in the mornings, as a reception place. The sahn of El Sennari House is very beautiful. There is a very old fountain in the middle that seems very ancient.

The sahn is an excellent place to see most of the mashrabeya screens of the house, as they are built to overlook the courtyard. These are some of the most beautiful ones I have seen in Cairo. There are many mashrabeya screens all around the house and in a very good state. They are of the finest variety, made of very small pieces of wood in tight patterns, and many have additional arabesque carvings within the wood. To the left on the second floor, one's eyes are drawn to a very attractive balcony with wood work all around it.

Under the balcony, there is a small display of pictures of the house as it appeared in the past. It gives one an idea of just how effectively the restoration process improved the condition of the house.

Afterwards, I entered a room near the main door of the house. This room has a hole in the ground at the end of it, which I believe was a water well or a place to keep water because this area is connected to all the other stores of the house. They used to transfer water all over the house from this place.

From here, I found myself on the same balcony I had seen from the sahn. It is a big open air space with the traditional Islamic decorated ceilings. Hanging from the ceiling are two charming lanterns much like the famous fanoos of Ramadan. Strikingly, there are few objects such as furniture within the house. Here, there was only a lonely wooden sofa where they used to sit in the summer beside the wooden cupboards one would normally find in many Islamic houses.

The next chamber is the main salamlek, the guest room of the house. It is similar in its design to the summer guest room in Beit El Suhaymi. It has a fountain and pillows to the right and left of it to sit on. It's window is covered by the largest mashrabeya screen in the house. It is one of those I spotted prior to entering the house and for those who love these screens, this one is a masterpiece. I spent a few moments admiring the mashrabeya and then I was off to see the rest of the house.

The bathroom was an interesting place. It has the same ceiling as in Beit El Suhaymi with the colored glass all above you with the sun rays lighting the place through them. There is a second bathroom, with rectangles cut into the ceiling and inset with small pieces of colored glass. It was lovely, appearing almost like an electric lamp pasted to the ceiling. Like the rest of the house, this bathroom was bare but for a big water container.

The next room was the main haremlek, a private room where the women of the house would have spent much of their time. It had two mashrabeya screens to the left overlooking the sahn. To the right, there are some wooden cupboards that were used by women to keep their precious items. Here, I really began to notice the interesting doors of the house, which are made of old wood and decorated beautifully in the Islamic style.

The third floor of the house wasn’t really interesting as it only had a few empty rooms and a little open air hall in the middle. I soon found myself returning to the sahn, one of the most pleasing areas of the house, to explore it a bit more. Here, I found what almost seemed like a tunnel that leads to the old main door of the house.

I left the house feeling a bit empty, just as the house seems so empty of life, seeing very few tourists and having so little content. It was not an unpleasant visit. I very much enjoyed the mashrabeya screens and the old doors, but there is precious little else here. In the past, Beit El Sennari hosted many works from different Egyptian artists. In 1917, a permanent exhibition displaying Napoleon Bonaparte's personal collection was on display here, but that was removed in 1926. It also housed many other exhibits over the years.

And this is what this old, famous house is in need of today, along with some additional attention to its garden. It needs some content, and specifically items to remind us of its real importance. As both a historical house, and the center of work surrounding the scholars in the Napoleon expedition, it deserves, and will probably someday receive, more attention. But probably only then will it find an audience of tourists. Nevertheless, even today it does have its charm, but only those very interested in such places will appreciate its appeal.

Bayt al-Kritliyya

 Bayt al-Kritliyya The House of the Cretan Woman

The House of the Cretan Woman, Bayt al-Kritliyya is an example of upper class medieval Cairene tastes. The house is located in the southeast corner of the Ibn Tulun Mosque in Sayeda Zainab and is now part of the Gayer Anderson House complex.

Bayt al-Kritliyya

 Bayt al-Kritliyya

 The Gayer-Anderson House is actually made up of two 17th century houses stuck together. This complex is named after a British major who lived in it and restored it earlier in the 20th century. He filled the house with French, English and oriental furniture and other fixtures. The house has a large reception room with a balcony that overlooks it.

 The balcony is enclosed with a screen through which women of the harem could discreetly watch the male visitors below. The legends about this house are almost as intriguing as the house itself. Inhabitants of the house were said to have had the blessings of the patron saint al-Hussein who was the grandson of Muhammad.

Bayt al-Kritliyya

Another legend says that the well of the house gets magical and curative waters from the Great Flood. This well is said to have been the entrance to the palace of the King of the Jinn. Vast treasures are said to have been guarded by magic. Jinn is believed to be evil spirits.

Bayt al-Kritliyya

Denshway Museum

On the 93 anniversary of Denshway incident, Mrs. Suzanne Mubarak today inaugurates Denshway National Museum in Menofeya governorate. The museum was rebuilt to witness and immortalize the historic story of the Egyptian peasants’ struggle in Denshway village against the then British colonialism.

The museum was designed by the consultative engineer Hany el-Meniawi to host all cultural activities besides Denshway incident. However, it comprises all historic documents on the event, as well as different instruments used in agriculture at that time such as the waterwheel and the shadoof.

Denshway Museum

Denshway Museum

Besides an administrative building, the museum comprises 5 show halls in which all sequences of the historic struggle are represented, in addition to number of sculptures, paintings and a diminutive pattern of the old Denshway village made by the engineer Essam Safyy Al-Dein and the artist Mahmoud Mabrouk. The building also includes a roofless theatre, cultural centre, music hall, VIP’s hall and an atelier as well. The museum, built on an area of 2850 sq.m, cost some LE4 million, in addition to some LE1.5 million were allocated to the artistic purposes.

Denshway MuseumDenshway Museum

Denshway in brief

In 1906, Denshway village was under the British colonialism. The British soldiers used to mistreat peasants, take their possessions, burn their crops and kill their children, women and old men as well. Such measures stir up people in Denshway, so, they resisted and revolted, by no weapons but their willingness and faith. First, they were able to make the British soldiers draw back but later, they were faced by different shapes of arbitrariness and many were killed. On the other hand, a British soldier died affected by a sunstroke but the British colonists were not convinced by the reason of the death and accused the peasants of killing him. Then there was a trial, a very unfair trial where 4 of the village’s youth were executed while many other were put in jail.

Denshway MuseumDenshway Museum

32 painters and sculptors were chosen to feature, by their own thoughts, the historic event on all dimensions. Among the paintings represented are, the two scenes of the trial and the judgment execusion, made by the painter Sabry Mansour, the preliminary trial represented by a committee of a foreign judge, the governor, a lawyer and a clerk, before them stand a number of charged people, made by the artist Ahmed Nabil. Also there are paintings of Mohamed Tarawi, who chose two scenes to depict naming them "Head of guards bleeding and "Sergeant Paul", while the painter Ibrahim Hegazi chose the incidents’ beginning to be the topic of his painting.

 Denshway Museum

All painters, could successfully express the event and could, by their own touches, colors and shadows make us feel as if they were painted at the same time of the event. After all, Denshway incident is a very special Egyptian epic of dignity and sacrifice, however, Denshway museum is an important cultural event to put Denshway village among the Egyptian tourist sites.

Imhotep Museum

It was with great excitement that the new Imhotep Museum was opened in April 2006 by Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities. A modern museum, both in technology and security, this is a place not to be missed on your next visit to Saqqara. Located twenty kilometers south of the Giza Pyramids, Saqqara is the site of the Step Pyramid and the funerary complex of King Zoser (Djoser), the Pyramid of Unas, the Teti Pyramid, Old Kingdom tombs with scenes of daily life, and much more.

The Step Pyramid of Zoser is Egypt's first pyramid, designed by Imhotep, for whom the museum is named. The sands of Saqqara have yielded treasures from the Archaic Period, the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, Late Period and Greco-Roman Period. And there is still much yet to be discovered! The excavations are continuing and each season more treasures are found.

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep MuseumImhotep MuseumImhotep MuseumImhotep Museum

In 1997 the building of the new museum began. The idea was to have a special place dedicated only to the many discoveries from this area. Located near the entrance, not far from where the ticket office was formerly located, visitors will be pleased to find artifacts that are attractively displayed, well air-conditioned buildings and modern toilet facilities.

The museum consists of five halls: 1) Theater and model of the funerary complex, 2) Main Hall including the architectural elements, 3) New Discoveries, 4) Model Tomb Hall, and 5) Library of Jean-Philippe Lauer.

Imhotep Museum

In the theater visitors can watch a short film made by National Geographic about the Imhotep Museum. In the center of the room is a model of the funerary complex showing the Step Pyramid and surrounding buildings in brilliant white, the way they would have looked when they were new. The model was constructed by Jean-Philippe Lauer (1902-2001), an archeologist that made many discoveries at Saqqara and dedicated his long life to restoring these monuments. One of the halls of the museum is dedicated to preserving his library.

The most noticeable feature of the Main Hall is the blue-green faience. These tiles were collected in the anti-chamber and burial chamber of the Step Pyramid and reconstructed to show visitors how the walls of these chambers and those of the Southern Tomb would have looked in ancient times.

Imhotep Museum

There is also a statue is of a scribe, Ptah-Shepses (5th Dynasty) from Abu Sir. There are two types of scribe statues – reading and writing. This statue of Ptah-Shepses is a reading scribe.

An impressive collection of large alabaster jars, some over one meter high, date back to the 2nd and 3rd Dynasties. These jars came from the chambers below the Step Pyramid. Included in the display is a block that shows the steps to making the alabaster jars.

Imhotep Museum

 One of the masterpieces now displayed in the "New Discoveries" hall of the museum is a mummy that was found during recent excavations around the Teti Pyramid. When we moved the sands we found a mummy that was the most beautiful mummy I have ever seen. When I saw the mummy for the first time I was shocked. The colors looked like it was painted yesterday – yellow, blue, red and black. We know that it dates to the 30th Dynasty, but regrettably we do not know the name of the owner because there were no inscriptions to tell us.

The mask is gilded. The mummy itself was wrapped in linen and is 176 cm in length. The casing is painted with scenes. On the chest there is painted a pectoral with a winged scarab. On each side there are five gods holding scepters. Under the necklace there is a winged goddess, Ma'at, with two feathers. On the legs of the mummy are scenes of the god Anubis performing the mummifications.

Imhotep Museum

Doing excavations, restoring monuments, opening new museums, publishing numerous books and articles, recovering stolen artifacts and increasing public awareness about Ancient Egypt and the new discoveries through the media, under his leadership the face of Ancient Egypt in today's world has reached heights never before achieved. Just as the Ancient Egyptians might say, "His name will live forever."

Imhotep MuseumImhotep MuseumImhotep Museum

Hall #4 contains a model of a small tomb and shows the typical burial elements, including the coffin, a wooden statue, pottery jars and offerings. There are also some offering jars that still contained some cheese when they were found! Other pieces in this hall include a pyramidion that was found by Dr. Zahi Hawass near the Teti Pyramid, some limestone maces, a wooden coffin from King Mery-en-Ra of the 6th Dynasty, a limestone block with pyramid texts from the Pepi I Pyramid, some canoptic jars of alabaster, and a limestone sphinx of King Unas.

Also in this hall are artifacts found during the excavations of Dr. Zahi Hawass near the Tomb of Qar. This newly discovered tomb was owned by a dentist from the Old Kingdom. There are surgical tools and bronze statues of the gods and goddesses, including Isis, Horus, Osiris, Ptah, Anubis and others. Dr. Zahi Hawass has made enormous contributions to Egyptology.

Despite all the wonderful things on display here in the museum today, we are still looking for more. Perhaps someday we may even unearth the tomb of Imhotep himself. It is said that only 30% of the treasures from Ancient Egypt have been discovered to date. Who knows what we may find tomorrow, or next week, or next year, or… the excitement and suspense of the search continues. No one knows what the sands of Egypt may hide, only that it will continue to yield the secrets of time.

Imhotep MuseumImhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

Imhotep Museum

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