The Statue of Tutankhamun Wearing the Red Crown

The Statue of Tutankhamun Wearing the Red Crown

This statue represents King Tutankhamun standing with his left leg forward. He is wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt adorned with the royal cobra (uraeus) at the front, the Usekh collar, a short pleated kilt, and a pair of sandals.

In his left hand, he is holding a long Heqa scepter with the top missing and in the right hand, the Nekhekh flail. This depiction of King Tutankhamun with the long neck, the swollen belly, and the low hips was clearly influenced by the art of the Amarna Period.

The Statue of Tutankhamun Wearing the Red Crown

The statue was found, with six other statues of Tutankhamun, wrapped in bolts of linen with an inscription giving the date when they were carved, which was year three of the reign of King Akhenaten .

Tutankhamun Sword

The Sword of Pharaon Tutankhamun

The sword of King Tutankhamun is a single piece of bronze divided into three parts. The first part is the hilt, which is black. The second and third parts form the blade.

The second part is straight, on the same level as the handle, and is engraved with the figure of a lotus flower with a long stem. The third part is bent to form a curve, and is engraved with a long stripe.

Tutankhamun Sword

The shape of this sword is the same as the sword held by the figure of the king, depicted on the perforated and gilded wood votive shield that was found in the tomb, and is considered to be ceremonial in purpose.

Tutankhamun Heart Scarab

Heart Scarab of Tutankhamun 

A special kind of scarab, known as a heart scarab, was placed in the wrappings of Egyptian mummies approximately over the heart. It was larger than the scarabs worn as seals or as amulets by living people, and it was generally made of stone, as decreed by the Book of the Dead, which also ordained that it should be put in a gold setting. Tutankhamun's heart scarab, which was suspended from his neck on a strap of gold wire, was placed near the navel. It was made of black resin mounted on an inscribed gold plate with a cylindrical eyelet at the head end for the suspension strap. A figure of a heron (Ardea cinerea or Ardea purpurea) in polychrome glass was inlaid on the back of the beetle.

As a rule, the main purpose of a heart scarab was to prevent the heart, which the ancient Egyptians regarded as the seat of intelligence, from giving evidence against the deceased owner in his judgment before Osiris. It was generally inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead (Chapter 30 B) and it was from the words in the spell that part of its magical power was thought to be derived. Tutankhamun's scarab bore a different inscription, which will be described, and in that respect it was not typical. But a heart scarab was not intended solely for use on Judgment Day. It was the symbol of the creative power of the sun-god and, through that power, it was supposed to restore life to the heart of the dead person.

Heart Scarab of Tutankhamun

Furthermore, in the hieroglyphic script, the word meaning "transformation, metamorphosis" was written with the scarab sign, and the heart scarab was believed to provide the deceased with the means to transform himself into one of the various living creatures, which included the heron, enumerated in the transformation spells of the Book of the Dead (Chapters 76-88). Tutankhamun's heart scarab, with its inlaid figure of a heron, was evidently designed to fulfill that function, in particular, through the normal processes of imitative magic. No copy of the Book of the Dead was placed in Tutankhamun's tomb, although some excerpts from it were inscribed on the walls of the gilded shrines that protected his body.

The heron or, to give it its Egyptian name, the benu bird, was deified in very early times, probably because of its habit of wading in shallow waters when the Nile was receding after the annual inundation. It was the first living creature to stand on the muddy soil each year, surrounded by water before the flood had completely subsided. In such a setting it reminded the early Egyptians of the initial stage in the Creation, when life first emerged from the waters of chaos, and it supplied them with a concrete image that symbolized the first act of creation. The benu, in consequence, acquired the epithet "He who comes to life through himself," or the self-generating. Tutankhamun, through his heart scarab, not only possessed the ability to transform himself into a benu, but was also able to regenerate himself at will.

In historical times the center of the benu cult was at Heliopolis, which was also the center of the more powerful sun cult of Ra, whose priesthood could not recognize the existence of any deity earlier than their own. The difficulty was overcome by postulating that the benu was simply a form assumed by Atum or Ra from the time of the Creation onwards, and a similar explanation was later adopted by the adherents of the Osirian cult. It was this external manifestation that was called by the Egyptians the ba.

Tutankhamun, by the very fact that he had been transformed into a benu, became the ba of the sun-god, and of Osiris, too, and it is in that capacity that he represents himself in the inscription engraved on the gold plate beneath the scarab. It reads: "Words spoken by the Osiris, king Nebkheperura, true of voice, 'I am the benu, the ba of Ra, who leads the blessed dead to the Underworld, who causes their bas to go forth on earth to do whatever their kas wish.' [So saith] the Osiris, the Son of Ra of his own body, Tutankhamun, Ruler of Heliopolis of Upper Egypt, true of voice.

" The ka has been defined as a person's "self", his individuality, but it is, like ba, a word that has many different shades of meaning. The value of the heart scarab lay not in its material or in its artistic qualities, though the heron is exquisite, but in its magical properties. For Tutankhamun it was perhaps the most important of all his amulets.

Ear Studs

Datable evidence suggests that earrings of the stud type were introduced into the Egyptian parure towards the end of Amenhotpe III's reign or in the Amarna period; they were therefore still a relatively recent innovation in the time of Tutankhamun. At least three pairs were included in his funerary equipment, two of gold inlaid with semiprecious stones and the more modest examples - one incomplete - illustrated here.

The complete specimen in this pair shows that each stud originally consisted of inner and outer mushroom-shaped bosses attached to shanks of tubular form, one slightly larger in diameter than the other, which fitted into the perforated lobes of the ears in a telescopic fashion. The tubes are made of gold, corrugated to provide a better grip.

When worn, the only part of the ear stud that could be seen was the outer boss; it might be plain or decorated. In these studs the greater part of each boss is made of reddish black resin, a substance used in many pieces of Tutankhamun's jewelry. It differs in its composition from amber and is believed to be a product of coniferous trees brought to Egypt from the region of Lebanon.

The material used for the white band has been identified by different authorities as crystalline limestone and as ivory, and similarly the center cap as possibly glass and as translucent calcite, which may have been fixed with a cement containing a red pigment to give it a reddish hue.

Tutankhamun Eye of Ra Pectoral

 Eye of Ra Pectoral of Tutankhamun

Inscriptions written between the eyebrow and eyelid on the front and back of this udjat eye read: "khopri, who is in his divine bark, the great dog, chief of the great temple" (i.e. the Temple of Heliopolis), and "Ra-Harakhty, the great god, who is in the night bark, lord of heaven and lord of earth." It is evident, therefore, that the udjat eye, in this instance, represents the Eye of Ra, not the Eye of Horus, a less common significance of the symbol, but not exceptional. The two barques in which the sun-god traveled - by day across the sky and by night through the underworld - were sometimes identified with the eyes of the sun-god and consequently with both the left and right udjat eyes.

Tutankhamun Eye of Ra Pectoral

Khopri represented the sun-god at sunrise in the east, and the Egyptians called the east the "left", which accords with the fact that the eye, if viewed from the side on which Khopri is named (shown in this illustration), is the left eye. If it is turned round it becomes the right eye; the word for west (where the god entered his night bark) was the "right". Ra-Harakhty is mentioned in the "right eye" inscription as being in the night bark. Further, though not conclusive, evidence that this udjat eye represents the Eye of Ra is provided by the presence of the cobra, which symbolizes the uraeus on the god's brow. That uraeus was itself regarded as the eye of the sun-god. Behind the cobra and under the eye is a single hieroglyphic sign for "protection," indicating that the king would receive the protection of the Eye of Ra.

According to another legend about the Eye of Ra, the sun-god ruled on earth as a king, but when he grew old people plotted against him. On hearing about their evil designs, Ra consulted some of his fellow gods, who urged him to send his eye in the form of the goddess Hathor to destroy his disloyal subjects. He accepted their advice and Hathor set forth on her destructive mission. Before it was completed, however, Ra relented and spared the survivors. Hathor, in this connection, is usually called the udjat eye and is so named in a spell in the Book of the Dead (Chapter 167), which is devoted to the return of the Eye of Ra after the massacre. It begins with these words: "Thoth has brought the udjat eye, he has appeased the udjat eye after Ra had sent her out and she had become exceedingly angry."

Thoth played a similar role in restoring the udjat eye to Horus and it is clear that the two legends have been conflated. The necklace, on which this pectoral was suspended in the layer of amulets nearest to the king's mummy, consists of blue faience, plain gold, and granulated gold cylindrical beads. At the top of the necklace, instead of a counterpoise, the repetition is broken by a large bead of black resin set between granulated gold cups flanked by granulated gold beads resembling miniature mesketu bracelets.

The Statue of Duamutef

The Statue of Duamutef

The Statue of Duamutef

One of several gilt statues of deities brought to light from the tomb of Tutankhamun, the statue portrays Duamutef, one of the four sons of Horus. Duamutef was typically shown with a jackal's head and was responsible for the protection of the stomach.

Here, he is depicted in a completely human shape, wrapped as a mummy and wearing the broad collar and the divine false beard. The name of the god is written on the black wooden base of the statue.

The Statue of Goddess Menkaret Carrying Statue of Tutankhamun

A statue of the goddess Menkaret shows her carrying the seated statue of King Tutankhamun over her head. She is supporting the king's back with her right hand and his feet with her left hand.

This is the position in which female Egyptian peasants carried water jars over their heads.

The king is wearing the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the usekh collar; he is wrapped in a shroud like a mummy.

The Statue of Goddess Menkaret Carrying Statue of Tutankhamun

The goddess is standing with her left leg forward. She is wearing a long wig and a pleated kilt. Her swollen belly and low hips show the artistic influence of the Amarna Period. This statue was used, with two others, in the mystical pilgrimages during the funeral of the king .

Alabaster Bowl fromTutankhamun Tomb

This is one of the finest alabaster bowls to have survived from ancient Egypt. It was originally made of a single piece of alabaster although it was found in several parts.
The bowl has a flat bottom, relatively high body, and a slightly thickened rim.

The Alabaster Bowl from the Tomb of Tutankhamun

Although the bowl is not inscribed or bears any relief, its position among the tomb equipment of King Tutankhamun, and the elegance of its design, suggest that it was intended to be a funerary object rather than an object for daily use.

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