Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Atum

 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses

 Atum Egyptian God

He is the "one who completes"

Atum was "Lord of the Limits of the Sky"

Atum the god of Heliopolis. He was a solor diety and creator god., who created some of the other gods.Atum was the head of the Ennead He is typically depicted as a human wearing the headcloth or the dual crown of a pharaoh. He was later joined with the God Re as Re-Atum.

Ancient Egyptians believed that Atum was the first god to exist on earth.The ancient Egyptians believed that Atum rose from the waters of chaos (Nun) and created all the gods. His cult center was Heliopolis.

 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Atum

 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Atum

 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Atum

  Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Atum

 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses - Atum

In the Old Kingdom he lifted the dead king from the pyramid to the stars.In the Old Kingdom he lifted the dead king from the pyramid to the stars. In the later dynasties Atum became the protector of all dead people on their way into the Afterlife and is featured in the non-royal Theban tombs in the New Kingdom.

Tutankhamun Canopic jars

Tutankhamun canopic jars and Canopic Chest

This chest, except for the removable lid, was carved from a single block of alabaster which was brought from Hatnub {el-Menya} in Middle Egypt. When it was discovered, it was covered with a dark linen sheet folded over 3 times. It takes the form of the “Pr-Wr” shrine of Upper Egypt with the cavetto cornice, torus moulding and the curved sloping lid. The lid was fixed to the vessel with cords knotted to gold rings and sealed with the official seal of the royal necropolis.

The seal portrays the jackal-god Anubis crouching on top of nine chained prisoners who symbolize the enemies of Egypt. It is mounted upon a sledge made out of wood, stuccoed and gilded. On the corners of the chest, the 4 protector goddesses are sculpted in raised relief. Each one is identified with the emblem on her head. The inscriptions carved on the sides of the chest are filled with blue pigment with prayers offered by the goddesses and the four sons of Horus on behalf of Tutankhamun.



At the bottom of the chest there is a gilded frieze containing representations of gilded Djed and Tyt symbols. When they opened the lid, which is decorated with a figure of winged Isis holding the Shen sign, the stoppers of the Canopic jars were found to represent the head of king Tutankhamun wearing the Nemes headdress surmounted by the cobra and the vulture on his forehead. The details of the facial features are painted in black and red.

 Amarna style of art is evident from the pierced earlobes and the 2 wrinkles under the neck. When the stoppers were removed, they found that the jars are not removable from the chest (carved inside it). Inside each jar, there was a coffinette taking the form of an anthropoid coffin which contained the viscera of the king. Each coffinette is an exact copy in miniature of the 2nd coffin of Tutankhamun.

They are made out of solid gold and decorated in rishi style of decoration and each has a Hieroglyphic line of inscriptions containing the name of one of the 4 sons of Horus with his associated protective goddess and the name of the appropriate internal organ protected. The inside of the lid has a figure of the appropriate deity in protective attitude, and the body of the coffin contains a long magical text on behalf of the king.

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