2014/01/11

The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy

 The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy


When a modern soldier goes into the field, he or she carries along, packed about their bodies, just about every conceivable item they might need for survival. When ancient Egyptian pharaohs died, likewise, they went forth into the netherworld with a host of equipment and survival gear.

The Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's Mummy





Of course, there were many grand treasures spread amongst the chamber of King Tut's Tomb, but one of the most interesting aspects of King Tut's mummy is the vast array of items that were attached to the body to provide him with the magical protection that would allow him to pass into the netherworld. Either on the outside, or wapped within the layers of mummy bandages that encased his body were no less then 107 different items, some grand, some very small and insignificant, at least to us, and some function.



The Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's Mummy


Most readers will be at least somewhat, if not very, familiar with his golden mask, today an gleaming icon of the young king. But this famous artifact is only one of many items found attached to his mummy. In addition to the mask, a number of items adorned the outer layer of the mummy. Notably, a scarab of black resin, its base inscribed with the Book of the Dead spell 29b, hung suspended from the neck on a decorative gold band made up from odd trappings originally prepared for Ankhkheprure.

 Underneath this, a pair of burnished gold hands (no. 256b(1)), were sewn directly onto the mummy wrappings. They clasped the decayed crook and flail. Below them, just visible through the unguents, was a large gold ba-bird (no. 256b(2)). Once again, these had actually been prepared for Ankhkheprure, and were only subsequently taken over for use by Tutankhamun by cutting out some of the original names.

The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's Mummy



However, as the wrappings of the mummy were systematically removed, some 150 magnificent items of jewelry, superb amulets and other objects were brought to light. These had been fashioned and positioned according to the dictates of the Book of the Dead, and would ensure that the king's transformation from death to true immortality. Indeed, they would help make him immortal, at least in the minds of the modern public.


The hybrid Funerary bed of Tutankhamun

The hybrid or hippopotamus Funerary Couch of Tutankhamun


The third bed depicts a composite deity having the head of a hippopotamus, the body of a leopard, and the tail and scales of a crocodile. This monstrous combination represents Ammut (amam: in ancient Egyptian language), meaning “Devourer of the corps”. This beast, as seen in the book of the dead, is ready to swallow the heart of the deceased who fails to be justified before the judgment of Osiris against the feather of MAat.

 The hybrid Funerary bed of Tutankhamun
According to legend, Ammut also possessed a positive value: in the form of a sow (female pig) personifying Nut, the sky, who swallows the sun god Ra everyday in the morning and gives birth to him once more at night thus by placing the deceased on this bed, he is granted eternal reincarnation.

Also there is another point of view as regards the connection of the goddess Ammut with the sky, that is, the Egyptian system of constellations connected the hippopotamus with the northern sky that is why Taweret (composed of parts of the same animals) was depicted on the ceiling of the tomb of Seti I in the Valley of the Kings.

 The hybrid Funerary bed of Tutankhamun

This bed is made out of stuccoed gilded wood. It represents a hybrid animal composed of the head of a hippopotamus opening his mouth, his teeth are made of ivory and the tongue is made of ivory painted reddish colour to imitate the normal colour of the tongue. The eyes are inlaid with blue-coloured glass paste, showing a teardrop (for explanation, see above). The animal is represented with a leopard's body and a crocodile's tail and scales.

This combination represents god Ammut or amam in ancient Egyptian language, the Devourer of the corps which was normally represented with the head of a crocodile, the forepart of a leopard and the hind-part of a hippopotamus, but here the artist changed the style maybe to be able to maintain the slender appearance of the funerary bed or to avoid the representation of a hostile being within the tomb of Tutankhamen.



Tutankhamun canopic jars and Canopic Chest

Tutankhamun canopic jars and Canopic Chest  pictures


          This chest, except for the removable lid, was carved from a single block of alabaster which was brought from Hatnub {el-Menya} in Middle Egypt. When it was discovered, it was covered with a dark linen sheet folded over 3 times.
Canopic Chest of Tutankhamen

 

 Canopic Chest of Tutankhamen
     

Canopic Chest of Tutankhamen

     It is mounted upon a sledge made out of wood, stuccoed and gilded. On the corners of the chest, the 4 protector goddesses are sculpted in raised relief. Each one is identified with the emblem on her head. The inscriptions carved on the sides of the chest are filled with blue pigment with prayers offered by the goddesses and the four sons of Horus on behalf of Tutankhamun. At the bottom of the chest there is a gilded frieze containing representations of gilded Djed and Tyt symbols.



Anubis and his Emblems

Anubis The Ancient Egyptian god and his Emblems

Who is Anubis?

He is the Inventor of Mummification and the Guardian of the Necropolis. They made him the Guardian of the Necropolis because he is a jackal and the jackal used to prowl in the tombs so they were afraid that he might corrupt the mummies. This is why they worshipped him as a god to avoid his harm.


Anubis and his Emblems

God Anubis' main cult center is the jackal Nome, 17th Nome El Keis nowadays. He has several duties. He is the one who escorts the deceased to the hall of the last judgment. He supervised the mummification process of god Osiris, so everybody wished him to be present during his mummification process to help him like he did with god Osiris. Additionally, God Anubis was responsible of checking the beams of the scale n the scene of the last judgment and determining the verdict. He is also the counter of the hearts.

God Anubis in the early dynastic myths was regarded as the son of God Re. Afterwards he was considered to be the son of Godess Nephtys from an illegal relationship with god Osiris. But goddess Nephtys neglected him out of her fear from Seth, so he was raised by goddess Isis(who  taught him important things: how to understand the human speech, some magical powers and some knowledge of medicine.
Anubis and his Emblems 
Therefore, God Anubis was very famous to the Ancient Egyptians. The Emblem of Anubis is comprised of two parts: The upper part is wooden and gilded, consisting of a pole ending with a closed lotus flower and tied to it a headless inflated-animal's skin, suspended by the tail to the pole, ending with a papyrus flower.

The second part is the Alabaster Vessel which was supposed to contain ointments. The alabaster vessel was inscribed with hieroglyphic inscriptions giving the names and titles of king Tut and God Anubis. And another god, his name is Imy-Wt. And they believed that there was another divinity or another god identified with god Anubis and his name was Imy-Wt, which means he who is in his wrappings (or bandages). And when the determinative of it is city then it means he who is in the embalming tent or city. But when the determinative is not a city, or when there is no determinative then it means he who is in his wrappings or he who is in his placenta. This god appeared in the early dynastic period and was identified with god Anubis and appeared with him and had all the qualities and the titles of god Anubis. But, we found for him an identical fetish which is called the Emblem (or Fetish) of God Imy-Wt. It was found near the Pyramid of King Senusert I at El-Lisht, by the Metropolitan museum of art. It was a real emblem, for the fact that it was made of real inflated animal skin which was padded by linen pads. And it was wrapped with sheets of linen. That is why they called him he who is in his wrappings, because his main emblem was wrapped with linen sheets. And the vessel contained a bluish ointment and we still have traces of this liquid until nowadays in the alabaster vessel. And they believed that this one was real because of the inflated animal skin. 

Anubis and his Emblems

Concerning these two emblems they were either known as the emblems of god Imy-Wt or the emblems of Anubis. As both divinities were identified together so, we cannot differentiate between both emblems. But until nowadays all scholars still suggest that they may be the emblems of resurrection in the tomb of king Tut.


 
Emblem of Anubis


Today, we are going to deal with these show-cases, which house two emblems, known as the Emblems of Anubis. They are found directly behind the camping bed, which was considered to be one of the interesting items found in the tomb of King Tut Ankh Amun. 

Anubis and his Emblems


Why did we call it the Emblem of Anubis?

They are very important and mysterious emblems. They called them the Fetish of Anubis or the Emblem of Anubis. The Fetish, means something which has magical powers or a spirit, which the one can deal with or even worship. It is not like the god , but it can only help him during his life-time.

Concerning these emblems, the main function is obscure. And until nowadays we do not know for sure what is the main function for these emblems. But the scholars had suggested two opinions :
 The First One relating it to god Osiris, while the second relating it to the Heb-Sed Festival.

The first group of scholars said that the emblem appeared in the scene of the last judgment nearby god Osiris. But it was only one emblem, not two. And they said that it might be related to resurrection or to the scene of the last judgment. So it was presented to ensure that the deceased will be resurrected or that he will pass safely.

The second group of scholars said that they were found inside the burial chamber, and we said before when Howard Carter opened the wall and got into the burial chamber he found that the outermost shrine was very huge and occupied all the room to the extent that he thought it was leading to another room. But we found these two emblems, one in the north-western corner and the other in the south-western corner. 

So they related the function to the place of discovery and they suggested that it might be related to the Heb-Sed Festival, as the outermost shrine is taking the shape of the Heb-Sed pavilion so they said they were two emblems one to the north and the other to the south corner as a certain indication to the Heb-Sed festival. And as King Tut Ankh Amun didn't live long to witness the Heb-Sed festival, he wished to celebrate it in the after-life.
We said that these emblems are known as the Emblems of Anubis.


The Folding Bed of Tutankhamun

 The Camping or Folding Bed of Tutankhamun

This full-sized wooden bed (length about 180 cm) could be used during camping or hunting. As Tutankhamun was fond of hunting so he used this kind of bed for convenience of transport during his hunting trips.
It was discovered in the Annex of the tomb.

It is made out of wood and the legs take the shape of lion’ paws. The mattress is made out of woven papyrus and is covered with lime wash and is perfectly preserved.
 The Camping Bed or Folding of Tutankhamun

The bed is distinguished by its unique design, which facilitates easy folding. It is divided into 3 parts fixed together with a technique of heavy copper joints or hinges. It has 8 legs; four of them placed strategically to support the folding parts.

The central part folds inwards over the first part while the third part folds outwards over the central one making the shape of the letter “z” when folded.

The footboard is plain except for some imitations of papyrus plant depicted head to head.

Tutankhamun as Sun-god emerging from a Lotus

 Head statue of Tutankhamun as Sun-god emerging from a Lotus


 This statue represents the head of the sun god emerging from a lotus; the sun god here takes the form of King Tutankhamun. The idea of this shape has a religious significance as it is related to one of the creation Myth which states that:
In the very beginning of the world, there was a primeval ocean which was called “NUN” which consisted of black water and out of this black water came out a luminous lotus flower which filled the whole world with fragrance and light.

 Head statue of Tutankhamen as Sun-god emerging from a Lotus

The Lotus Flower

The blue lotus was known as Srpt in hieroglyphics, there were 3 kinds of lotus white and blue, later on the pink one appeared which came to Egypt from foreign countries such as India or Persia. The blue lotus was famous for its fragrant smell and it is the one which is usually represented with the deceased on the walls of the tombs.

Lotus was an important symbol in Ancient Egypt; it was the emblem of Upper Egypt as the lotus flower needed a hot weather to grow. The Egyptians noticed that the lotus flower opens its petals in the morning sun and closes them and sink below the water at dusk this inspired them with the idea of rebirth and regeneration. The emerging lotus is the symbol of the sun that is also regenerated each morning following its nightly journey to the regions of the underworld.

The petals of the lotus flower are not rounded but they have pointed ends which resembles the sunrays, we could also notice that the center of the flower represents the sun while the petals represent the sunrays.

In the Book of the Dead, chapter 81 includes a spell which the deceased used in order to be transformed into a lotus flower as it was thought to be a symbol of rebirth since it comes out of the depths each morning.

Material of the Statue

This statue is made out of wood covered with plaster or stucco and then painted.

Discovery

It was found by Howard Carter  on the floor of the entrance corridor which leads to the antechamber. It is thought that it was dropped by one of the robbers who participated in one of the last robberies for one reason or another in their exit which could well have been a hasty one.

Description

The eye lashes and the eye brows of this statue are coloured dark blue in association with the hair of god Re whose hair was thought to be made of pure lapis lazuli. The Amarna style of art is clear in this statue; this is shown by:  the elongated skull, two wrinkles under his neck and the pierced ear-lobes, which contain traces of an earring. The blue painted base represents the waters of the NUN on which the lotus flower grows. This head has the purpose of wishing the king a destiny of everlasting rebirth.

The statue is also associated with god Nefertum because Nefertum and Tutankhamun were both young as well as the fact that lotus flower was a symbol of Nefertum who was the god of perfume. 


The Lamp of King Tutankhamun

  The Chalice Lamp of King Tutankhamun

It was found in the burial chamber and one of two calcite lamps found in Tutankhamun's burial chamber.  It takes the form of a thin walled lotus flower. It has handles with openwork decoration. The handles and the cup are resting on a base taking the form of a table.

The handles represent GOD HEH, god of millions of years, kneeling on the neb sign and papyrus plants with raised arms holding with one hand the ankh sign while in his other hand he is holding the notched palm reed. Between the two signs, there is the cartouche of the king.


The Lamp of King Tutankhamun


The most fabulous thing about this piece is the way it has been executed. It is made out of two layers of alabaster. The outer cup is made of thin layer of translucent alabaster then another container, which is smaller in size is placed inside it. The outer surface of the inner cup is decorated with a colourful scene which makes it appear that the lamp is painted from inside.

The scene which is inside the lamp represents the king while seated on his throne holding the ankh sign while his wife is standing in front of him presenting to him two notched palm reeds, rnpt sign, sign of million of years. The scene is inscribed with the cartouches of the king and his wife.

This elaborate decoration celebrates the wish for unity and a long reign for the pharaoh. The lamp was supposed to be filled with oil, perhaps sesame oil or castor oil, then lit by means of a floating wick.

It is noticeable that lotus flower is a common representation on most of the alabaster containers of this collection because lotus is one of the flowers which has a fragrant smell especially the blue one and it's a suitable motif for the decoration of unguent or perfume containers.


Flower Necklace of faience beads of Tutankhamen


This necklace consists of several rows of faience beads. Although the technique of making pottery was in existence long before Tutankhamun ascended the throne, it was only during the reign of his predecessor, Akhenaten, these necklaces with colorful garlands of flowers imitating came into heavy use. Each line represents a fruit or berry, a petal or leaf.


Flower Necklace of faience beads of Tutankhamen
 
Blueberry, lotus, and mandrake were among the flowers, and olive and willow trees are the leaves of the Egyptian New Kingdom regularly used for their garlands. The berries are generally of the nightshade plant. With a PE Newberry, a partner at Carter, was able to determine the season in which Tutankhamun was buried on the basis of the growing seasons of plants used in garlands of King. According to Newberry, the funeral took place from mid March to late April. One of the many garlands placed around the third or innermost, the coffin was composed of two real flowers and glass beads. other necklaces made entirely of faience beads were found on the mummy, and others were scattered over the various rooms of the tomb.

Made ground quartzite, associated with an element of pigmentation, ceramic beads could be shaped by hand or cast into a mold. They were then dried and fired, producing a hard, porcelain like finish. The white glaze terminals shown here contains an elaborate design consists of several rows of petals, flowers and fruit. Five flexible strands of beads, each ending in a flower, are suspended from the terminals.


Pectoral of Psusennes I

Winged Scarab Pectoral of Psusennes I



Pectoral of Psusennes I



A winged scarab pectoral of King Psusennes the First is engraved with Spell 30 of the Book of the Dead. It wished that the heart of the deceased would not be taken away from his owner, nor oppose him in the judgment of the afterlife. Four such pendants were found on the mummy of Psusennes the First.

The main element of the composition is a large scarab of dark stone, built in a golden frame. It has two large narrow wings encrusted with multicolored glass. The scarab lies upon the Shen sign of universal power inlaid with brown jasper.

The name of Psusennes Pa-spa-kha-en-niut-mry Amun, which means: "the shining star in the city, beloved of Amun," is written within the cartouche.

The necklace chain and counterpoise are composed of beads of gold, green, brown jasper, and felspar.

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