Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamun

Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamun

It is made out of pure solid gold weighing about 110 kg. Its decoration is exactly similar to the middle coffin but the differences are: it’s inlaid with semi-precious stones in only a few parts and there is a further representation of Isis and Nephtys protecting the lower part of his body while Nekhbet and Wadjet protect the upper part. At the foot of both coffins there is a figure of (ISIS) kneeling on the nbw sign.

Innermost Coffin of Tutankhamun

The coffin's shape is that of Osiris holding the sacred insignia, the heka scepter and the flail. The vulture and the uraeus, or cobra, protect his forehead. The divine beard is made of gold inlaid with blue glass.

Deities of Upper and Lower Egypt protect the body of the coffin with their wings. The coffin weighs 110.4 kilograms or 243.4 pounds.

Diadem of Sat Hathor

Ancient Egyptian Diadem,Diadem of Sat-Hathor

This attractive diadem, or royal headband, was discovered inside a space in a wall, where a rich collection of jewels was hidden.

The ornament was made to be worn over a wig. This diadem is a gold band decorated with 15 rosettes and a cobra with inlays of carnelian, lapis lazuli, and green glass paste.

Diadem of Sat-Hathor

The gold bands on the upper part of the diadem reproduced the two long plumes that were typical of royal and divine headdresses.

The moving strips on either side of the face and at the back of the neck resemble the ornamental ribbons that were often applied to floral garlands.

Golden Ring Decorated with a Rooster

This golden ring is decorated with a rooster with an open mouth. The rooster used to be considered a charm which drove away evil spirits, especially when it was depicted with its mouth open.

Golden Ring Decorated with a Rooster

The ring is unique in style and form. It consists of three thick spirals of solid gold, two of which are entwined together, while the third surrounds them. Each of the three spirals ends in a tiny ball.

The ring is set with chalcedony, a precious stone, which is framed with a wide golden band. Judging by the ring's beauty and weight, it was made for an important person of considerable wealth.

Islamic Ceramics Museum

When the Ministry of Culture decided to add to one to a series of specialized museums of Islamic ceramics, and the Palace Prince Ibrahim in Zamalek built in 1343 AH (1924 AD).
There is no doubt, was inspired by this choice of the architecture of the Islamic palace is impressive and dercoration, as well as its location in a quiet area and modern at the heart of the city.

 Museum of Islamic Ceramics


This magnificent palace, a masterpiece in itself, and provides an ideal environment for the work of the precious Muslim potters throughout Islamic history. Islamic Ceramic Museum, which opened in late 1998, is an integral part of the renovation and restoration of Gezira Arts Center of the National Center for the Arts, Ministry of Culture.

 Museum of Islamic Ceramics  Museum of Islamic Ceramics Museum of Islamic Ceramics

The first of its kind in the Middle East, it houses a rare collection of ceramics acquired from different Islamic countries that represent various techniques of decoration applied in the Islamic world from Morocco in the west to Iran in the east. The collection comprises 315 pieces, of which 116 are from Egypt representing popular styles from the different Islamic eras, Umayyad, Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk, 118 pieces in Turkish style ( Iznik and Kutahia ), 25 pieces in Syrian style (Al-Raqqa), 48 pieces in Iranian style, 2 pieces in Andalusian style, 2 pieces in Iraqi style and one piece in Moroccan style. The ceramics include vessels, jars, tiles, mugs, jugs, bowls, plates, pitchers, vases, lanterns, cups, the oldest dating back to second century Hijra and the most recent dating back to twelfth century Hijra.

 Museum of Islamic Ceramics Museum of Islamic Ceramics Museum of Islamic Ceramics Museum of Islamic Ceramics

The pieces, carefully selected from the acquisitions of the Gezira Museum (150 pieces) Islamic Art Museum (159 pieces) and 6 pieces from the very palace that houses the Museum of Islamic Ceramics, are displayed on two floors in a total area of 420 square meters.


Tutankhamun Djed Pillar amulet

Many theories have been advanced in an endeavor to explain what the symbol known as the djed pillar represents. It has been regarded as a combination of the four pillars that the Egyptians believed supported the four corners of the earth, as a tree with lopped branches, and as a human spinal column. The view most generally held at present is that it depicts a bundle of stalks tied together. Its origin, however, was forgotten by later Egyptians and it was though to be the backbone of the god Osiris. This was the interpretation that seems to have been universally accepted in the time of Tutankhamun.

In remote antiquity the djed pillar was a fetish with a cult of its own. Priests of the cult still functioned in the Old Kingdom, or at least bore the appropriate titles. The center of the cult may at first have been situated at Busiris or at Mendes, in the Nile Delta, but by the Old Kingdom it had a sanctuary at Memphis where its independent existence was soon lost and it was absorbed by the powerful cult of the local god, Ptah, an event commemorated by the inclusion of the djed pillar among the emblems mounted at the head of that god's scepter.

Tutankhamun Djed Pillar amulet

A more important legacy of the ancient cult was a ceremony, known as Raising the Djed Pillar, which took place at Memphis on the eve of the coronation of Egyptian kings and at their jubilee festivals. In that ceremony the king, aided by a number of priests, raised a djed pillar from the ground with ropes and placed it in an erect position. The significance of the ceremony is partly explained by the meaning of the  word djed, "stability" or "duration," the concept being that the king and his kingdom gained stability and duration from the performance of the ceremony. But it also symbolized the revival of the kingship after it had "died" with the demise of its previous holder.

Revival after death and the whole conception of resurrection were closely bound up with the cult of Osiris and it is not surprising that the emblem which represented that conception should have been adopted, not later than the beginning of the New Kingdom, by the adherents of the Osirian cult. The djed pillar soon became one of the most common amulets to be placed on mummies. A spell in the Book of the Dead (Chapter 155) was devoted to it and the words of the spell were engraved on one of two djed amulets found on the mummy of Tutankhamun. It reads "Thou hast thy backbone, O weary one of heart; thou shalt place thyself upon thy side so that I may give thee water beneath thee[?]. I have brought thee a djed pillar of gold; mayest thou be please with it."

According to the instruction that is appended to the spell in the Book of the Dead, the djed pillar should be made of gold and be placed on the neck of the deceased on the day of his funeral. Both of Tutankhamun's djed amulets, suspended on gold wire necklaces, lay over his throat. The inscribed amulet, which is illustrated here, is completely overlaid with gold, so that the material used for its core cannot be seen. In addition to the spell, it is inscribed on the front with his throne name written, as usual within a cartouche.


Pectoral as Shield for Magical Protection

The pectoral, a large piece of jewelry worn on the chest, is shaped like an aegis, or shield. It represents a shield of magical protection. The aegis is in the shape of a collar consisting of five rows of lotus and papyrus flowers.

In the middle of the first row, a small representation of the winged goddess of justice, Maat, depicts the feather of truth on her head. The aegis is topped by the head of the goddess Hathor as a protective amulet.

Pectoral as Shield for Magical Protection

Hathor is shown in the form of a woman wearing the horned sun disk crown. Under her traditional crown, she wears a long wig covered with the feathers and wings of Nekhbet, the vulture goddess of Upper Egypt. Both sides of Hathor's head are decorated with heads of the falcon god, Horus.

The Alabaster Boat of of King Tutankhamun

The Alabaster Boat of of King Tutankhamun

·        It is considered one of the most beautiful pieces of the collection of King Tutankhamun.

·        It was found in the annex of the tomb.

·        The function of this boat is uncertain: it was either an unguent container or a perfume holder or most probably it was a centerpiece used during celebrations and ceremonies for decoration purposes because Howard CARTER found it, it was covered with garlands of flowers.

The Alabaster Boat of of King Tutankhamun

·        It consists of a boat mounted on a pedestal, both of which are decorated with floral and geometric motifs. It is thought that this basin might have been filled with water to complete the image of the decorative centerpiece.

·        It is mounted upon short cylindrical legs. The basin is decorated with some features of the shrines, like the cavetto cornice and torus moulding.

·        The boat itself is represented with ibex or antelope heads at the prow and stern, both of those heads have real horns one of which is now missing and they are both facing the same direction. The second one is turned about 180 degree to face the same direction.

·        At the prow a naked girl with a curly wig, wearing earrings, armlets and bracelets, is represented seated and holding in her hand a blue lotus.

·        At the stern, there is a dwarf standing naked and he is wearing a wig similar to the one worn by the girl. He is also wearing armlets and bracelets. When this piece was first discovered, he was holding a pole in his hand and most probably he was the helmsman who directed the boat.

 N.B. There were two kinds of dwarfs known in ancient Egypt:

    1-Pygmies were in a small form of normal human and without any deformities. They were a species of African tribes that lived in Africa.
 2-Dwarfs with pathological deformities: they had normal sized torso but short arms and legs the head was also big as they suffered from pathological or inherited deformities.

·        In the center of the boat, there is a cabin or kiosk supported at the four corners with columns having double capitals: papyrus set in lotus flowers. These columns support the roof of the kiosk and they are partly gilded. The kiosk is decorated with the same floral and geometric motifs as well as having the cavetto cornice and torus moulding.

·        At the side nearer the prow of the boat there are 3 cartouches bearing the names of the king and the queen.

·        On either sides of the basin, there are lotus and papyrus flowers upon which there are two cobras. The one which is over the papyrus is wearing the red crown while the one over the lotus is wearing the white crown.

·        There are also some signs: the Was – sign of prosperity, dominion and authority; the Djed – sign of stability and the Shen – sign of eternity.

The Kharga Museum

 The Kharga Museum in El Kharga

 The Kharga Museum in El Kharga

The Kharga museum not only has displays from pharaonic, Ptolemaic, Roman and the Christian eras, but also considerable information on prehistory, including artifacts. Most of the displays were derived from the Kharga and Dakhla oasis.  Museum hours are from 8 AM until 4 PM.

The Ramatan Taha Hussein Museum

Decision was issued by the Ministry of Culture transferred Villa Taha Hussein or "Ramattan" also called the dean of Arabic literature and the land adjacent to a museum to commemorate his memory, in the 91/92.At the entrance to the museum is a statue of Taha Hussein, head of bronze from the work of artist Abdel Kader in 1936 livelihood and the museum contains two floors of the villa? The library is divided into two parts: a huge part has books in Arabic and when he died gave this part of the Library and there are even now.
The other part of the library is mostly written in foreign languages​​, and these books are still in the library the villa and the chair he was sitting upon the office that he was writing his secretary upon the dining hall and space for his son, sociable, as well as rooms for the management and display some of the belongings of Dr. Taha Hussein from clothes and decorations Arab and foreign Collar of the Nile, which received them and medals given to him on various occasions and the life of Taha Hussein was a bus and saw the property of the Republic and the First World War and the second saw the Egyptian revolution of Taha Hussein's life is a life history of all of Egypt over the past half century.

The Ramatan Taha Hussein Museum

The Ramatan Taha Hussein Museum

Dr. Taha Hussein (1889-1973) is the doyen of Arabic literature and one of the most celebrated figures of Egyptian contemporary cultural and intellectual history.

He emerged from the Egyptian countryside and from the cloisters of Al-Azhar University to enrich the Arabic library with more than fifty books dealing with literature, history, philosophy and education. Almost all his books have been translated into several languages.

Dr. Taha Hussein transcended the reality in which he lived by opening up to the study of humanities without losing his originality. He was awarded more than 36 Egyptian and foreign decorations foremost among which was the Collar of the Nile which is the highest decoration in Egypt conferred on Kings and Heads of State. He also obtained the United Nations Prize for his achievements in the field of human rights.

He occupied senior university posts including a professor of ancient history of Arabic literature, dean of the Faculty of Arts at Cairo University, a general supervisor or of culture at the Ministry of Education, Rector of Alexandria University, and chief Editor of "A1 Katib A1 Araby" (The Arab Scribe) magazine.
In 1950 he was selected as Minister of Education. He introduced a number of reforms most important of which was the establishment of the principle of free education in Egypt.

In recognition of all Dr. Taha Hussein's achievements for Egypt the State bought his residence in the Pyramids district after his death and converted it into a museum carrying the name "Ramatan" which literally means in Arabic the two oases where traveling caravans stop to take rest. As Dr. Taha Hussein was keen on having his son Dr. Moeniss share his residence, he designed the villa with two entrances to preserve each one's privacy and freedom.

That is why he called it "Ramatan" or two places of rest for him and his son.

The museum or "Ramatan" is made up of two stories. The ground floor houses Dr. Taha Hussein's study and a part of his 7,000 book library, a great reception hall where he received men of letters, politicians and artists every Sunday evening. In one of the corners of this hall stand a huge piano, a gramophone and records of rare musical works by Schubert, Verdi, Bach, Mozart, Schumann and others.

The top floor has three bedrooms and a small hall where there is a closet enclosing all the decorations, medals and orders which the Doyen received during his lifetime.

The garden has a bust for Dr. Taha Hussein by the noted Egyption sculptor Farouk Ibrahim. A smaller building designed in the same style of the villa has been converted into a cultural center which will be used for holding seminars and cultural exhibitions to keep Dr. Hussein's legacy alive .

November 14th, 1889
The Birth of Taha Hussein
An Egyptian leader of enlightenment

He was born in Upper Egypt and lost his sight at the age of three.

Taha Hussein is the doyen of contemporary Arabic literature and a pioneer of enlightenment.

When he assumed office as Minister of Education in 1950, he managed to put his motto, "Education is like water we drink and the air we breath," into practice.

In 1914, he received the first doctorate granted by an Egyptian University.

He succeeded in making all elementary and secondary education free.

In 1918 he obtained another PhD in Social Philosophy from the Sorbonne, Paris.

In 1919 he received a diploma in post-graduate studies in the Roman Civil Code from the same university.

He was granted honorary doctorates from the universities of Oxford, Madrid, and Rome.

In 1919 he was appointed a professor of history at the Egyptian University. He did not confine himself to political and constitutional history but transferred to his students his knowledge of Greek drama such as Sophocles and Aeschylus.

The greater part of Taha Hussein’s canon is basically influenced by Greek culture. He issued "Selected Pages" from Greek Dramatic poetry (1920), "The Athenian System" in 1921, and "Leaders of Thought" in 1925. Thus, the link between his Arabic culture with that of Greece was a turning point as thinker.

The first book was an incomplete attempt at an expose of Greek poets and their works. The second book was a meticulous translation of one of the most important texts of Greek history of civilization. He deals with the religious impact on thought in the Middle Ages, then moves on to the Modern Ages of multi influences.

Thus, Taha Hussein was not merely influenced by Greek thought in his literary work but also in his books on politics and civilization. The books he issued following his return from Paris greatly influenced modern Arabic classical literature.

He waged many battles for enlightenment, the respect of reason and thought, and women’s emancipation. The first of these was in 1926 when he issued "Pre-Islamic Poetry", which was highly controversial in both politically and literary circles. It aroused wide-scale front page arguments in newspapers between supporters and opposers. In self defense he argued that he adopted a scientific method of approach in his treatise on Pre-Islamic poetry. That method, he said, was adopted by western philosopher scientists and men of letters who followed the French philosopher Descartes in his reasoning in search of the truth of beginning. It renovated science and philosophy and changed the outlook of men of letters and artists in the West.

Pectoral ornament in the form of a winged scarab

Pectoral ornament in the form of a winged scarab

Pectoral ornament in the form of a winged scarab

Faience pectoral in the form of a winged scarab. The holes on the outer edge of the wings indicate that this was mean to be strung onto a bead net. 

Such nets were made to cover the mummified body in the Late Period. The winged scarab was a powerful image of solar rebirth for the deceased.


Perfume Container of Tutankhamun

 Unguent Vase with Magnificent Symbols of Unification of Tutankhamun

It was found between the doors of the first (outermost) and the second of the four large shrines situated around the sarcophagus, coffins and mummy of Tutankhamun in the burial chamber.

The vessel has a long neck with two handles, better known as “amphora” because it is similar to vessels used by Greeks and Romans taking the same shape and they used to contain wine or oil.

  Unguent Vase with Magnificent Symbols of Unification of Tutankhamun

The stopper of this container is now missing. Most probably it took the form of the king or the head of the king because we can see GODDESS NEKHBET stretching her wings around that missing figure which was probably made out of precious stone or gold and it was stolen or missing for any other reasons.

Over the body of the amphora there are two columns of hieroglyphic inscriptions giving the names and titles of the king and his wife the queen.

The handles are made in openwork representing the “sematawy”, sign of the unification of the two lands. There are two standing figures of GOD HAPY: HAPY MEHYT and HAPY SHEMAYT (Hapi mHyt and Hapi Smayt) tying the Lotus and Papyrus together as a sign of unification.

HAPI MEHYT: the northern HAPI was represented with a clump of papyrus over his head while HAPI SHEMAYT: the southern HAPI was represented with lotus flowers.

The ancient Egyptians used to differentiate between the Nile itself, which they called itrw wr or itrw aA and the Nile inundation, which they deified in the form of HAPI.

HAPI was the representation of the flood, the ancient Egyptians used to call the arrival of the flood as the arrival of HAPI.

HAPI was represented combining the male and female features together (the hermaphrodite form). He is depicted with the heavy breasts and swollen belly of a woman and the rest of the body of a man as a sign of fertility. Sometimes he would carry an offering table heaped with different kind of offerings like fish, birds and flowers like lotus and papyrus.

HAPI didn't have a particular cult centre, he was worshipped all over Egypt from the North to the South but he was believed to live in ASWAN and Gabal El Selsela near the first cataract of the NILE, where he was thought to dwell in the caverns among the rocks.

Another symbolism for the unification of the two lands is represented in the 2 columns behind the two Hapys. These columns are decorated with papyrus and lotus and each one is surmounted by a cobra, one of these two cobras is wearing the white crown of Upper Egypt while the other is wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt.

THE NILE GOD is standing up on a pedestal, which is decorated with openwork decoration, which shows 2 figures of Rahorakhty outstretching their wings to protect the cartouches of the king TUTANKHAMUN on the long sides, all resting on the nbw sign.

The short sides depict representations of the winged serpent protecting the cartouches of the king between its wings.


Ancient Egyptian Military

Egypt is of the countries in Africa and the Middle East. The ancient name for Egypt is Kemet meaning 'black land'. It had obtained its name owing to the fertile black soil found on the plains of the Nile river which flows through Egypt.

Egypt is also known for its historical monuments like the Giza pyramid complex and even the Egyptian civilization holds a lot of importance. Egypt is a country which has political and cultural significance for the Middle East. Egypt derived its English name from various sources like the French word Egypte, from Latin Aegyptus and ancient Greek Aigyptos.

Ancient Egyptian Military
Ancient Egyptian Military

The military was responsible to protect Egypt against outside invasion and also to maintain Egypt's control in the ancient Near East region. Military also protected mining voyages during the Old Kingdom period. It even fought civil wars, maintained fortifications. There were forts which were specially built to establish a military base there.

Standing army was used in the New Kingdom period. The military men used bows and arrows, spears, shields with round tops made from animal skin as their weapons. Chariots were used in the New Kingdom. These chariots were initially known to have used by the Hyksos intruders.

After bronze came to be used, there was an improvement in the weapons and armors of the Egyptian military. The old shields were not replaced by those made out of solid wood that had a bronze buckle, even spears had bronze points. The use of Khopesh was also known. It was borrowed from the Asian soldiers.


Human headed Winged Cobra of Tutankhamun

This figure of a winged cobra with human head was placed over the neck of the king's mummy, in the fifth group of amulets. It is made of sheet gold, embossed and chased. At the back is an eyelet so that it could be suspended from a linen-thread necklace. A number of Egyptian goddesses, such as Wadjet, Meretseger, Werethekau, and Renenutet, were sometimes represented as winged serpents, but only Meretseger seems to be shown with a human head.

She was the tutelary deity of the Theban necropolis, where Tutankhamun's tomb lay. Her presence among the other head and neck amulets in the group would, however, be hard to understand. Furthermore, she was a late creation, whereas the other deities, whose figures were used as amulets on the king's mummy, had belonged to the Egyptian pantheon since ancient times. Carter, in his slip catalogue of the objects found in the tomb, was unable to suggest any identification and merely wrote "significance unknown."

 Human-headed Winged Cobra of Tutankhamun

Although the precise identification of the figure remains problematical, some evidence of its associations seems to be offered by the other amulets in its group. These amulets consist of five vultures, an erect cobra, or uraeus, and a pair of similar cobras joined together. The Middle Kingdom coffins generally depict, on the wall opposite the head of the deceased occupant, five vultures and five cobras, the latter usually represented erect, but one or more may be represented in repose.

The correspondence in the number of vultures suggests that there should also have been five cobras on the neck of the mummy. The human-headed winged cobra could be the fourth cobra, and the cobra in repose might be the fifth, assuming that it was misplaced by the embalmers. The texts on the coffins say that these vultures and cobras are to be put on the head of the dead person, but they do not mention their purpose. Perhaps they were intended to be protectors of the five royal names.


The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy

 The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy

When a modern soldier goes into the field, he or she carries along, packed about their bodies, just about every conceivable item they might need for survival. When ancient Egyptian pharaohs died, likewise, they went forth into the netherworld with a host of equipment and survival gear.

The Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's Mummy

Of course, there were many grand treasures spread amongst the chamber of King Tut's Tomb, but one of the most interesting aspects of King Tut's mummy is the vast array of items that were attached to the body to provide him with the magical protection that would allow him to pass into the netherworld. Either on the outside, or wapped within the layers of mummy bandages that encased his body were no less then 107 different items, some grand, some very small and insignificant, at least to us, and some function.

The Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's Mummy

Most readers will be at least somewhat, if not very, familiar with his golden mask, today an gleaming icon of the young king. But this famous artifact is only one of many items found attached to his mummy. In addition to the mask, a number of items adorned the outer layer of the mummy. Notably, a scarab of black resin, its base inscribed with the Book of the Dead spell 29b, hung suspended from the neck on a decorative gold band made up from odd trappings originally prepared for Ankhkheprure.

 Underneath this, a pair of burnished gold hands (no. 256b(1)), were sewn directly onto the mummy wrappings. They clasped the decayed crook and flail. Below them, just visible through the unguents, was a large gold ba-bird (no. 256b(2)). Once again, these had actually been prepared for Ankhkheprure, and were only subsequently taken over for use by Tutankhamun by cutting out some of the original names.

The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy The Treasures of King Tut's Mummy
The Treasures of King Tut's MummyThe Treasures of King Tut's Mummy

However, as the wrappings of the mummy were systematically removed, some 150 magnificent items of jewelry, superb amulets and other objects were brought to light. These had been fashioned and positioned according to the dictates of the Book of the Dead, and would ensure that the king's transformation from death to true immortality. Indeed, they would help make him immortal, at least in the minds of the modern public.

The hybrid Funerary bed of Tutankhamun

The hybrid or hippopotamus Funerary Couch of Tutankhamun

The third bed depicts a composite deity having the head of a hippopotamus, the body of a leopard, and the tail and scales of a crocodile. This monstrous combination represents Ammut (amam: in ancient Egyptian language), meaning “Devourer of the corps”. This beast, as seen in the book of the dead, is ready to swallow the heart of the deceased who fails to be justified before the judgment of Osiris against the feather of MAat.

 The hybrid Funerary bed of Tutankhamun
According to legend, Ammut also possessed a positive value: in the form of a sow (female pig) personifying Nut, the sky, who swallows the sun god Ra everyday in the morning and gives birth to him once more at night thus by placing the deceased on this bed, he is granted eternal reincarnation.

Also there is another point of view as regards the connection of the goddess Ammut with the sky, that is, the Egyptian system of constellations connected the hippopotamus with the northern sky that is why Taweret (composed of parts of the same animals) was depicted on the ceiling of the tomb of Seti I in the Valley of the Kings.

 The hybrid Funerary bed of Tutankhamun

This bed is made out of stuccoed gilded wood. It represents a hybrid animal composed of the head of a hippopotamus opening his mouth, his teeth are made of ivory and the tongue is made of ivory painted reddish colour to imitate the normal colour of the tongue. The eyes are inlaid with blue-coloured glass paste, showing a teardrop (for explanation, see above). The animal is represented with a leopard's body and a crocodile's tail and scales.

This combination represents god Ammut or amam in ancient Egyptian language, the Devourer of the corps which was normally represented with the head of a crocodile, the forepart of a leopard and the hind-part of a hippopotamus, but here the artist changed the style maybe to be able to maintain the slender appearance of the funerary bed or to avoid the representation of a hostile being within the tomb of Tutankhamen.

Tutankhamun canopic jars and Canopic Chest

Tutankhamun canopic jars and Canopic Chest  pictures

          This chest, except for the removable lid, was carved from a single block of alabaster which was brought from Hatnub {el-Menya} in Middle Egypt. When it was discovered, it was covered with a dark linen sheet folded over 3 times.
Canopic Chest of Tutankhamen


 Canopic Chest of Tutankhamen

Canopic Chest of Tutankhamen

     It is mounted upon a sledge made out of wood, stuccoed and gilded. On the corners of the chest, the 4 protector goddesses are sculpted in raised relief. Each one is identified with the emblem on her head. The inscriptions carved on the sides of the chest are filled with blue pigment with prayers offered by the goddesses and the four sons of Horus on behalf of Tutankhamun. At the bottom of the chest there is a gilded frieze containing representations of gilded Djed and Tyt symbols.

Anubis and his Emblems

Anubis The Ancient Egyptian god and his Emblems

Who is Anubis?

He is the Inventor of Mummification and the Guardian of the Necropolis. They made him the Guardian of the Necropolis because he is a jackal and the jackal used to prowl in the tombs so they were afraid that he might corrupt the mummies. This is why they worshipped him as a god to avoid his harm.

Anubis and his Emblems

God Anubis' main cult center is the jackal Nome, 17th Nome El Keis nowadays. He has several duties. He is the one who escorts the deceased to the hall of the last judgment. He supervised the mummification process of god Osiris, so everybody wished him to be present during his mummification process to help him like he did with god Osiris. Additionally, God Anubis was responsible of checking the beams of the scale n the scene of the last judgment and determining the verdict. He is also the counter of the hearts.

God Anubis in the early dynastic myths was regarded as the son of God Re. Afterwards he was considered to be the son of Godess Nephtys from an illegal relationship with god Osiris. But goddess Nephtys neglected him out of her fear from Seth, so he was raised by goddess Isis(who  taught him important things: how to understand the human speech, some magical powers and some knowledge of medicine.
Anubis and his Emblems 
Therefore, God Anubis was very famous to the Ancient Egyptians. The Emblem of Anubis is comprised of two parts: The upper part is wooden and gilded, consisting of a pole ending with a closed lotus flower and tied to it a headless inflated-animal's skin, suspended by the tail to the pole, ending with a papyrus flower.

The second part is the Alabaster Vessel which was supposed to contain ointments. The alabaster vessel was inscribed with hieroglyphic inscriptions giving the names and titles of king Tut and God Anubis. And another god, his name is Imy-Wt. And they believed that there was another divinity or another god identified with god Anubis and his name was Imy-Wt, which means he who is in his wrappings (or bandages). And when the determinative of it is city then it means he who is in the embalming tent or city. But when the determinative is not a city, or when there is no determinative then it means he who is in his wrappings or he who is in his placenta. This god appeared in the early dynastic period and was identified with god Anubis and appeared with him and had all the qualities and the titles of god Anubis. But, we found for him an identical fetish which is called the Emblem (or Fetish) of God Imy-Wt. It was found near the Pyramid of King Senusert I at El-Lisht, by the Metropolitan museum of art. It was a real emblem, for the fact that it was made of real inflated animal skin which was padded by linen pads. And it was wrapped with sheets of linen. That is why they called him he who is in his wrappings, because his main emblem was wrapped with linen sheets. And the vessel contained a bluish ointment and we still have traces of this liquid until nowadays in the alabaster vessel. And they believed that this one was real because of the inflated animal skin. 

Anubis and his Emblems

Concerning these two emblems they were either known as the emblems of god Imy-Wt or the emblems of Anubis. As both divinities were identified together so, we cannot differentiate between both emblems. But until nowadays all scholars still suggest that they may be the emblems of resurrection in the tomb of king Tut.

Emblem of Anubis

Today, we are going to deal with these show-cases, which house two emblems, known as the Emblems of Anubis. They are found directly behind the camping bed, which was considered to be one of the interesting items found in the tomb of King Tut Ankh Amun. 

Anubis and his Emblems

Why did we call it the Emblem of Anubis?

They are very important and mysterious emblems. They called them the Fetish of Anubis or the Emblem of Anubis. The Fetish, means something which has magical powers or a spirit, which the one can deal with or even worship. It is not like the god , but it can only help him during his life-time.

Concerning these emblems, the main function is obscure. And until nowadays we do not know for sure what is the main function for these emblems. But the scholars had suggested two opinions :
 The First One relating it to god Osiris, while the second relating it to the Heb-Sed Festival.

The first group of scholars said that the emblem appeared in the scene of the last judgment nearby god Osiris. But it was only one emblem, not two. And they said that it might be related to resurrection or to the scene of the last judgment. So it was presented to ensure that the deceased will be resurrected or that he will pass safely.

The second group of scholars said that they were found inside the burial chamber, and we said before when Howard Carter opened the wall and got into the burial chamber he found that the outermost shrine was very huge and occupied all the room to the extent that he thought it was leading to another room. But we found these two emblems, one in the north-western corner and the other in the south-western corner. 

So they related the function to the place of discovery and they suggested that it might be related to the Heb-Sed Festival, as the outermost shrine is taking the shape of the Heb-Sed pavilion so they said they were two emblems one to the north and the other to the south corner as a certain indication to the Heb-Sed festival. And as King Tut Ankh Amun didn't live long to witness the Heb-Sed festival, he wished to celebrate it in the after-life.
We said that these emblems are known as the Emblems of Anubis.

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