Egyptian Deities

Ancient Egyptian society was deeply rooted on religious rituals and traditions. Ways of life were based mostly on religion. They believed in a large number of gods and goddesses. Worship of deities constitutes the essence of their religious belief.The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt were a complex group of beings and ideas. Egyptian Gods tend to stroll around with animal heads, without the matching body. One god can have enormous number of names, which can be often confusing. The list of gods and goddesses will run to enormous number of pages. Therefore, only a few are mentioned below.
Egyptian Deities

 Egyptian Deities


Amen, also known as Amon was considered as the universal creator. He was sometimes pictured with the head of a ram; sometimes as a man with a crown with two tall straight plumes. Amen, the great god of Thebis was the "hidden god". His temples were situated at Karnak and Luxor. He was the god of fertility, agriculture, reproduction and generation.


He was the god of embalming and tombs, protector of the dead, judge of the dead and god of the Underworld. His cult was very ancient. He was a jackal or dog-headed god. He was the god of wisdom, intelligence, death, embalming truth, justice, surgery, medicine, journeys, protection, boats, diplomacy etc.


Cats were worshipped as deities in Egypt. They were considered sacred and even embalmed when they died. Bast was the cat-headed goddess and the mother of all cats. She was also the goddess of sex and fertility. Bast carried a basket in her left hand.She was generally draped is green. She was often portrayed as lioness, but sometimes with kittens beside her as she was the fertility god. She was the god of fire, moon, childbirth, pleasure, sexual rites, marriage, dance, music etc.

Egyptian Deities

Bes was a guardian god and was pictured as a leopard skin-clad dwarf with a huge heaf, prominent eyes and cheeks, a curly beard, and an open mouth with protruding tongue. He was known as the protector of the dead and the protector of people from danger. He was the god of childbirth, dance, music, marriage and good luck.


Geb, a fertility deity was the god of earth. Plants grow within his body, the dead are imprisoned inside him, and earthquakes are his laughter. He is more than a god of the surface of the earth in fact, he is a god of everything contained within the earth.


Hapi was pictured as a very fat man with pendulous breasts, dressed like a boatman with a narrow belt around his great belly. Egyptians believed that Hapi lived near the First Cataract on the Isle of Bigeh in a cavern. In June they made offerings to him accompanied by poetic hymns. Hapi was considered as the god of the Nile, crops, fertility, water, prosperity.


Hathor was a predynastic goddess who was called "Queen of the west" and "House of the face". Hathor's appearance could be as a cow-headed goddess or a human-headed woman with horns and cow's ears. She embodied love, feminity and the joy of motherhood.


Isis was the supreme Egyptian goddess. She was pictured with dark hair, blue eyes, and fair skin. She was the divine mother of Egyptian pharaohs and Egypt as well.She was the goddess of marriage and domestic life, the Moon, motherhood, fertility, magic, purification, initiation, reincarnation, success, womanhood, healing, spinning, weaving, advice, divination, civilization, agriculture, the arts, protection and advice. She was also the patroness of priestesses.


Ma'at or Mayet was the goddess of truth and balance and was called "Lady of the judgment hall". She was married to Thoth. She was often pictured wearing an ostrich feather on her head while standing or sitting on her heels. Her law governed the three worlds.

Egyptian Deities

Osiris was the universal god or the god of nature. He is known as the god who taught mankind the secrets of civilisation. He was pictured with a tanned complexion and fair hair. He was shown sometimes standing, sometimes seated on his throne, tightly wrapped in mummy cloth.


He was the god of the unclean, the terrible desert, the murderer and cruelty, evil, war, and the Underworld. He was known to the Greeks as Typhon. The animal associated with this god had long pointed ears and looked rather like a dog, but the exact animal is not known. Set was the god of revenge, death, cursing, suffering, destruction and evil.

Ancient Egyptian Axe

In ancient Egypt, as a practical weapon, it was the hatchet which eventually replaced the mass as one of the main Egyptian army battle ax fitting weapons.The is a blade attached to a handle size, the idea being to keep as much as possible danger. As relatively little power was exercised affixing the blade to the handle was not very critical. The head is usually inserted into a hole or groove in the wooden handle and attached fast.In reality, the blade has been used throughout Egyptian dynastic history, while the piercing blade does not seem the Middle Kingdom.

Ancient Egyptian Axe

Ancient Egyptian Axe

 In general, we can distinguish about five subtypes battle axes. Battle axes had a crescent-shaped blade and used as a weapon close contact but can also be run as missile.During the Middle Kingdom, between 2030 BC - 1640 BC, Pharaoh has struggled to maintain the Egyptian government. They need to protect their trade routes and resources more than ever. Bronze axes White began to appear in the infantry that time.They were built with a blade fixed in the grooves of the long handles.

It was a weak connection and axes made by their contemporaries as feathers a hole in the head of the ax handle to pass through, but it has served its purpose to cut troops without armor and piracy through skin covered wood framed shields.Infantry armed with battle axes was generally deployed after the enemy had been weakened by archers. The ax was more effective in reducing injuries or fleeing enemies to pieces that it was customary to infringe Hyksos intact line.The battle, Asians themselves, are credited with having introduced armor scale in Egypt and resulted in changes to the shape of the battle ax there by the middle of the second millennium.

Ancient Egyptian Cooking

Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine

The climate dictated the kind of food that formed a part of ancient Egyptian cuisine. Bread was a major part of this cuisine. This bread was exclusively prepared from emmer wheat. At times, barley was also used. An interesting fact remains to be that bread was available in 30 different shapes. From the round bread called as pita, there was also bread that was baked in the shapes of animals or birds. At times, this bread also included some healthy fillings.

Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine
Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine

This can be named to be the first signs of sandwich seen out here! Bread was often eaten along with vegetables. This included celery, lettuce, cucumber, scallions etc.Garlic was also used predominantly. Ancient Egyptian food also included pulses, chickpeas, cabbages, turnips, lentils and beans. Sometimes, vegetables such as celery were eaten raw. Fruits also formed an important part of ancient Egyptian cuisine. Grapes were the most popular amongst all.

Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine

The ancient Egyptians also ate figs and dates. Beef, honey, coconuts, antelope, gazelle meat, fancy cakes, peaches and apples were also enjoyed by the rich of Egypt.Brewing beer and baking bread were two closely related processes in ancient Egypt (as in many other cultures). The mash from the beer provided the starter for the rising of the bread -- and leftover bread could go into beer along with ground barley. It is speculated that the Egyptians were the first to discover leavened bread.Beer was the national drink, made from the crops of barley. To improve the taste the Egyptians would add spices and it was usually stored in labelled clay jars.

Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine

 Wine for the upper classes was made from local vineyards. After the harvest was gathered, the workers would tread the grapes, and the juice collected . Other wines were made from pomegranates or plums.Cooking was mainly done over an open fire along with cooking in clay ovens. Egyptians cooked their food by baking, boiling, roasting and even frying their food. Of course, some of their fruits and vegetables were eaten raw. The ancient Egyptians also used clay ovens for cooking.

Ancient Egyptian Cooking and Cuisine

 Sugar was something that was not really known to the ancient Egyptians. Honey was used as a sweetener where as the poor used dates as a way to sweeten food.Kitchen utensils and equipment included items such as storage jars,bowls, pots, pans, ladles, sieves, and whisks. Most people used clay dishes, while the wealthy used dishes made of bronze, silver, and gold. All ate with their fingers. Sesame seeds, honey, fruit, butter, and herbs were commonly added to the dough to add flavour.

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