2013/12/31

Unique Jewelry Clasp of Tutankhamun

Unique Jewelry Clasp of Tutankhamun


Unique Jewelry Clasp of Tutankhamun


This jewelry clasp is made of gold, silver, and colored glass. 

The design features Tutankhamun's throne name in a cartouche flanked by two uraei, or royal cobras, and topped with crescent and full moons.

These symbols guarantee the king will be protected during the day and at night.




Tutankhamen Model Boats

The Model Boats of Tutankhamen



This collection of boats is called model boats because of its smaller size and they were symbolic boats used by the king on his journeys beyond the grave. Model boats made their first appearance since the Pre-dynastic period (even Pre-history, as they were carved on walls of Pre-historic caves) and existed throughout all the Pharaonic history.

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen
 

Introduction:

According to the ancient Egyptians, the Nile was considered the main road of transportation as well as the main road of commercial activities.

The prevailing wind in the Nile valley came from the North, so that sails could be used to move boats traveling South while those heading North against the wind relied on oars as well as the water current. (Note that the hieroglyphic word meaning to sail south xsf ends in a determinative of a boat with its sails open while that of the word meaning to sail north xd its sail is closed and represented with oars).

So the boats were very important and considered the fastest means of transportation as they used them to transport people, goods and cargos and these are what we call the daily-life boats.

Model boats were placed in tombs to ensure for the deceased a pleasant journey in the afterlife.

Historical Background:

¨  Boats were used in ancient Egypt since as early as the Predynastic Period (Gerzean Period) as indicated on representations of boats on early vases and funerary equipment also from surviving rock carvings (Pre-historic era).

¨  A great deal of information regarding Egyptian boats has survived principally in the form of representations on the walls of tombs or from funerary models or textual references. There have also been finds of actual boats like the Solar boats of King Khufu or fragments of boat timber.

¨  The earliest and simplest boats were probably the ones made out of papyrus (bundles of reeds tied together, occasionally with pieces of wood added inside to make it stronger and to provide a platform on which to stand or sit). These were used for fishing or hunting in the marshes also for crossing the river and traveling for short distances. Unfortunately, these were short lived as they regularly became water logged and had to be rebuilt.

¨  Wooden boats are also recorded especially with findings of tools used for building them since antiquity: adze for shaping planks, awl for drilling holes and saw for cutting. All were made of copper. Images in tombs and temples show people building boats throughout dynastic times with the same tools. Wooden boats were manufactured taking the form of traditional papyrus boats. Wood was normally brought from Syria, Palestine or Lebanon (Byblos).

¨  Papyrus boats had a symbolic meaning as they were used for royal or sacred purposes: the solar trip of Re (from day to night and vice versa across the heavens) and funerary boats carrying the mummy of the dead king to the necropolis across the river also pilgrimage boats carrying kings and nobles to cult centres like the temple of Osiris at Abydos or Isis at Philae.

¨  In the New Kingdom elaborate models of divine boats or holy barques (sometimes covered with gold sheets) were carried in processions carrying the god where he would ride a full-sized divine ship in ceremonies along the Nile.

 
 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

 
 Functions of boats:

1-Secular function: which means that boats was used for transporting goods and as a means of transportation for example transporting the obelisks of queen Hatshepsut from Aswan quarries to the Karnak temple.

2-Religious function: they were related with 2 journeys of the deceased and the deities. The first journey is the pilgrimage or voyage to Abydos as the deceased used to make this journey being transported on a funerary bed in a boat taking the shape of papyrus and it was known as "the papyrus boat" or "the cult boat". As for the family of the deceased they used to accompany him in this voyage in ordinary funerary boats. The second journey was the solar journey of god Ra. God Ra used to ride in two boats; one during the day time which was called (manDet m3ndjet) and the second during the night which was called (msktt msktet).

The shape


A boat consists of 2 parts: the frontal part which is known as (the prow) and the rear part which is known as (the stern). The body of the boat itself is known as (the hull). Usually the king used to sit in a shelter inside the boat and the helmsman (the one who steers the boat) was often represented as a dwarf.

The Collection of Tutankhamen

We have at least four show cases showing boats or model boats from the tomb of Tutankhamen. It comprises 35 boats found in the Treasury and the Annex of the tomb (14 were found in the Treasury). Most of these boats were made out of wood such as cedar wood they vary in size from 1 to 2.5m.  The 5 smaller boats were made out of one piece wood while the 5 bigger boats were made of several pieces of wood attached together by means of pegs and tenons.

They are classified into 5 types:  

1.    Transport Boat :

 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen


Among the boats of Tutankhamen's collection were seven boats usually called barges, without sail but with double steering oars. Its principal feature is a double roofed (stepped) central cabin with representation of three windows and a door. Both roof tops have cavetto-cornices decorated with checker-board patterns. 

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

At the prow and the stern there are smaller cabins or kiosks, which probably served as shelters for members of the crew and were also decorated.
This type of boats was used for transportation.

2.    Solar Boat:

 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen


This boat is one of several solar boats found in the treasury of the tomb. It had a raised lotus-flower prow and a re-curved stern, one throne placed in the middle, and two steering oars. It is of wood covered with a layer of painted stucco, with some gilded parts like the prow and the stern which were also inscribed with Tutankhamen's names and titles. 

 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

The throne is also gilded having a representation for the sema tawy sign of unification on both sides. Close to the prow is a painted representation of the eye of Horus. The two oars attached to vertical posts with a cross piece are the steering mechanism. This boat was used by the king to accompany god Re on his daytime journeys across the sky to join him in heavens.

3.    Pilgrimage Boats:
 The Model Boats of Tutankhamen
This type of boats has ropes and mast holding the sail of the boat, a central cabin, two gilded kiosks at the prow and the stern decorated with images of a bull and a sphinx and inscribed with the cartouches of Tutankhamen, and two steering oars. The hull of the boat and the central cabin are bearing some decorations. It is the only type of boats that has a sail and oars. The top part of the oars is decorated with human heads. Unlike many of the other model boats in the tomb, there are no cabins or windscreens for the passenger. This craft was not part of the funerary cortege nor was it like one of the ships which the pharaoh used in life.
As for this type, it was used in the pilgrimage to Abydos. 

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen

When the boat was sailing to Abydos in the south, they used the sail as they were sailing with the prevailing wind. But when they were sailing from Abydos to the north, they used the oars as they were sailing with the current of the river against the wind. This type of boat was carved from a single piece of wood with mast, oars, cabin, and kiosks made separately and attached with pegs. This boat was usually painted on the walls of the tombs to show the deceased's voyage with his family to Abydos as seen on the walls of the tombs of Beni Hassan in Menya. 


4.    Lunar Boats:

Only two boats of this type were found in the collection of King Tutankhamen. It is a simple boat with in-turned gilded papyrus formed prows and sterns. It is made out of one piece of wood with its hull covered with painted stucco. This type used for night-time lunar travel.

5.     Papyrus Canoe: 

  The Model Boats of Tutankhamen


These canoes are used for hunting hippopotami and fowling in the marshes of the Hereafter. It is a simple boat sometimes called raft having an opened papyrus form prow and stern. It is made out of one piece of wood with its hull covered with painted stucco. This boat resembles the boat upon which the king was holding a harpoon (the piece studied before).




The Statue of God Anubis

The Statue of God Anubis

Introductian Aboudt Anubis:-

-God Anubis was the inventor of mummification, the chief of embalming and the guardian of the necropolis.
- He was considered as a funerary god related to the embalming and the mummification process.
At early times in the different legends they believed that god Anubis was the son of god re.
 
The Statue of God Anubis

-later on, by the appearance of the coffin text they started to believe that he is the son of  goddess "nephtys" from an illegal relationship with god Osiris, so she decided to desert him because of her fear of her husband god seth. So god "Anubis " was raised by goddess Isis, the wife of god Osiris who rewarded him by giving him different abilities such as providing him with ability of understanding the human speech as well as providing him with some knowledge of medicine and providing him with the art of embalming and some other magical power he used to have.
- God Re ordered god Anubis to help goddess Isis and god Horus in reassembling the parts of god Osiris's body so to insure that he will be resurrected in the afterlife. So with the help of god Anubis, god horus managed to collect all the parts of god Osiris and reassemble him again.
-the  priests  used to wear the head of the mask of the jackal to insure that he is doing the same role of god Anubis,we have different scenes representing the priest wearing the mask. The most spectacular scenes were depicted in Komombo, edfu as well as the tomb of senagem where we can see the priest standing by the funerary bed wearing the mask of god Anubis.
- His main cult center is the seventeenth nome which is known in ancient Egyptian time as the jackal nome. Later on it was called by the greeks as the cynopolis  which means the "jackal city''. durind nowadays  it was called "El kais" in "El Menia" governorate.

 The Statue of God Anubis


Why they represent god Anubis in the form of the jackal?

They used to see the jackal prawling  and digging in the sand and devouring the bodies so as to avoid the harm of this animal, they worshiped him as a dog.
-In the early dynastic periods god A nubis is always represented in the form of complete jackal. Later on they started to depict him in the form of human having  the head of the jackal..

Concerning the different roles and duties of god Anubis:-

-At the beginning the ancient Egyptian believed that he has a major role in the process of mummification as he had during the mummification of god Osiris so he will help in the mummification of all the deceased. Moreover, he was related with the process of opening of the mouth.
-He was responsible for leading the deceased and guiding him to the underworld. He used to guide the deceased to the last judgment in the famous scene of last judgment Anubis used to appear next to the balance as to check the beams of the scale with the feather of maat to determine if the person guilty or not.
- He is also considered the considered the counter of the heart as he  used to count the hearts after the last judgment.

-This was found in between the entrence of the treasury room facing the burial chamber.




The description of the statue:

-the statue is made out of wood; it was covered with a layer
of resin and in some parts it was gilded such as the inner parts of the ears, the scarf, the collar around his neck, the eye brows and the extended cosmetic eye lines.
-He is represented in a recumbent position upon a sledge over a chest. this chest was taking the shape of a shrine and decorated from the sides with Isis knot and the Dd sign.
-Also it is decorated with some hieroglyphic inscriptions as well as the cartouches of king Tutankhamen. This chest is connected with 4 poles which indicate that most probably the statue of god Anubis was held in different funerary processions. 

 The Statue of God Anubis
When we first found the statue of god Anubis upon the chest, it was wrapped with a sheet of linen inscribed with the seventh year of the reing of king Akhenaton. Some scholars believed that most  probably this linen was made during the seventh year of the reign of king Akhenaton. Others believed that it was inscribed with (pr Itn) which means the house of Iten. It might be reused from the reign of Akhenaton.
-We found inside this chest several things like 8 pectorals,2 calcite cups containing some remains of resinous substance. They believed that these are from the substances used during the process mummification as they found that they contain resin, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate and natron. These substances were used in mummification so may be these are the substances used in the mummification of king Tutankhamen. They found also some amulets taking the shape of (whm) which is the animal hooves and it means ''the continuity of the movement". We also found 2 statuettes one of them belongs to god (Rahorakhety). The other statuette belong to god Thot.


The upper frame    
Right side
dd mdw in inpw:words spoken by god Anubis
imy wt :he is in the placenta
Left side
dd mdw in inpw:words spoken by god Anubis
hnty sh ntr:he who is in front of the divine shrine

The Middle Rectangle
mry inpw:beloved of Anubis
imy wt :he is in the placenta
nb t3 dsr:lord of the sacred land
ntr nfr:good god
nb hprw re nb h w:lord of the forms of ra,lord of shining.
The Cartouches
twt  nkh imn hk3 iwn rsyt:the living image of amun,The ruler of southern Heliopolis
mry inpw:beloved of Anubis
hnty sh ntr:he who is in front of the divine shrine
                                                                                             

  As we refer to the importance of god Anubis, he had many titles:
1-The lord of the sacred land(nb t3 dsr)
2- He is in the placenta( imy wt)
3-He who is upon his mountin(tpy dw.f).



The Carriage Museum

 The Carriage Museum

 The Carriage Museum


The Carriage Museum, within the Citadel, is housed in the building once used as the British Officers' Mess during the colonial period. It has a collection of eight carriages, including that of the Khedive Ismail used when he opened the Suez Canal in 1869 and a golden state carriage presented to the Khedive by Napoleon III. In fact, most of the carriages date from this period.

2013/12/29

The ushabty Statuettes of king tutankhamun

 The ushabty Statuettes of king tutankhamun

The ushabty Statuettes

What are they?

Shabti figures were a common feature of most of the large ancient Egyptian burials. They are generally considered as a type of funerary statuettes. They were made either for royal or private persons.

The ushabty Statuettes of king tutankhamun


Material

Shabtis were made of different materials such as wood, various kinds of stones, bronze (mainly royal shabtis), pottery, wax and faience (commonest material used).





History:

1.    The shabtis made their first appearance in the 11th dynasty (earliest known belonged to Mentuhotep II) and continued to exist throughout the Pharaonic history with the exception of the Hyksos Period.

2.     In the Ptolemaic Period, they were still in use but on a smaller scale. The last dated shabtis can be attributed to the end of the reign of Cleopatra VII.

3.     During the Roman period, most probably they were not included in the funerary equipment because we did not find any shabtis from this era. However it had been suggested that there are a few examples of Roman date kept in the British museum.

The name, shape, function and number of the shabtis differed from one period to another: 

The development of the name of the shabtis:

- In the 11th and 12th dynasties, Shabtis were called SAbty or SAbtyw. This was written with a determinative of wood or a mummiform statuette and wood as well but always with plural strokes. This was most probably derived from the word Sbd, which means stick or staff and less likely from the word Sbt which means enforced labour. Other opinions suggested that the term might be derived from the verb SA meaning “to command” or the verb SAdt meaning “to dig”.

- In the 2nd Intermediate Period they were called SAwAbty. And this name always had a determinative of wood. Some scholars suggested that it was either derived from the word Sbd or SAwAb which means (Persea tree –Ishid tree)

- From the 21st dynasty onwards, they started to be called WSAbty. This name is derived from the verb wSb which means to answer or to respond and this name is related to their function.

The development of the shape the shabtis:

- The earliest examples from the 11th dynasty took the shape of an elongated human body of a male or a female. Each figure is represented with both arms held at the side and legs together.

- At the beginning of the 12th dynasty, they took a complete mummiform shape without hands or details except for the face. Then they started to add the details of hands and arms to allow them to perform their duties. These were regarded as the beginning of true shabtis. They were inscribed with the Htp di nsw formula and some magical spells which formed later on Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead.

- From the middle of the 18th dynasty, they were provided with models of tools of agricultural implements such as (basket- pick - axe-hoe).

- After the Amarna period, Shabtis wearing daily life costumes appeared for the first time. This new style was very popular during the 19th dynasty but this new style didn't survive for a long time only for the shabtis representing the overseers.


The development of the function of the shabtis:

- At the beginning of their appearance (during the 11th and early12th dynasty) and because they were taking the facial features of the deceased, their function was to act as substitute for the mummy in case it got destroyed or disappeared.

- Towards the end of the 12th dynasty, they were regarded as the counterpart of the deceased who takes his place in the corvee of the underworld. In other words, they served as master and servant at the same time.

- From the 20th dynasty and during the Late Period, the shabtis were considered as Hmw or slaves, thus their main function became restricted to replace their masters or owners in the manual work required from the deceased in the corvee of the underworld, when he was asked by Osiris to perform certain duties, for example: cultivating the land, irrigating the riverbanks or transporting sand from the east to the west. The shabtis will magically transform in the afterlife by means of a special formula to be recited to them when needed. This formula is what we call chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead and it is normally inscribed on the shabtis themselves.

The development of the number of the shabtis:

- At the beginning of their appearance, they were very few in number, ranging from 1-5.

- Starting from the New kingdom, the number of the Shabtis began to increase considerably. Sometimes we find 365 (each one to correspond with each day of the year), or 401 (they added 36 overseers or reis upon each group of ten or one overseer for each 10-day week) or 413 (adding 12 foremen (each one for each month of the year).
But in the tomb of king Seti I we found about 700 shabti figures and this was the largest number of shabtis collected from one tomb.

[High officials used to have 401 ushabtis but Tutankhamun had 413 because he added 12 as explained before].

Important Notes:


-They were made in special workshops under the direction of a priest whose title was “Chief Fashioner of Amulets”.

- In the Middle Kingdom and greater part of the New Kingdom, shabtis were usually dedicated to the deceased by his family or friends. When the numbers increased, they were bought and sold.

 

 -Finally, the names and titles of the owners of the shabtis show that they were made for the privileged ones and for the elite classes of the society throughout the Egyptian history.


Ushabtis of Tutankhamun

We found 413 ushabti in the tomb of Tutankhamon which were distributed between the Annexe and the Treasury. Only one was recovered from the antechamber. (This was probably misplaced from one of the two main collections). They were discovered in 24 boxes, ten of them from the Treasury and 14 from the Annexe.

They were made of different materials: Wood, calcite, various kinds of stones and coloured faience.

As the real shabti figures, even those of the king were merely formal representations and not portraits. In this case, the sculptor has produced what appears to be the likeness of Tutankhamun. There are indications that not all of the shabtis buried in the tomb had originally been made for the king since the facial features of some of them are quite different from those of the boy king.

They are represented with different kinds of crowns, headdresses and wigs: nms, xAt headdresses, Red crown, white crown, double crown, blue (xprS) crown, tripartite wig or stepped (curly) wig.

§        They are also represented holding various objects such as the crook, flail as well as their special implements (Over 1800 objects were found accompanying Tutankhamun’s ushabtis made out of copper, faience and wood).

§        Only 29 of Tutankhamun’s ushabtis were inscribed with a version of chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead or the ushabti formula, the remaining 384 carried just the king’s names and titles.
§        An inscription found under the feet of five of the more elaborate ushabtis explain that it was made by the Royal Scribe and General of the Army, Minnakht and Maya, the supervisor of the royal necropolis as a gift for their lord the Osiris king Nebkheprure to be part of his funerary equipment.

The differences between servant statues and shabti figures:

1- Concerning the function, shabti figures had definite function (to answer instead of the king while being asked by god Osiris to perform tasks in the fields of Iaru) while servant statues used to be put in the tomb with the deceased to serve their master in the hereafter by doing daily life duties like slaughtering animals, feeding the geese, etc. Also the ushabti would answer to commands asked by Osiris in the afterlife while servants were commanded by their master.

2- Concerning the number, shabti figures have definite number (as explained before) while servants never had a definite number.

3- Concerning the facial features, shabti figures used to have the facial features of the deceased, while servants were represented with their own features.

4- Concerning hieroglyphic inscriptions, shabtis used to be represented having hieroglyphic inscriptions (names and titles of the king- Htp di nsw formula (at the very beginning) - magical spells of chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead). Servant statues had no special inscriptions.


The Canopic Shrine of Tutankhamun

 The Canopic Shrine of Tutankhamun

·        It was discovered by Howard Carter against the eastern wall of the Treasury facing the door of the burial chamber.

 The Canopic Shrine of Tutankhamun

·        It consists of two main parts, the inner part and the outer part:

·        The outer part or ‘Canopy’ is made out of gilded wood and consists of four corner posts surmounted by cavetto cornice, the two outer sides of each post are decorated with hieroglyphic inscriptions carrying the names and titles of the pharaoh. The roof is supported by a frieze of cobras surmounted by solar disks inlaid with semi precious stones: the light blue colour referring to the turquoise, the red colour being red cornelian, the dark blue colour being made from lapis lazuli. 

 The Canopic Shrine of Tutankhamun

In between the corner posts of each shrine, there is a statue of one of the protective goddesses identified by her hieroglyphic emblem shown on her head. These statues are represented in standing attitude with their feet inwards extending their arms in a protective manner. The heads are slightly tilted to one side (either left or right) breaking the ancient Egyptian rule of frontality. They stand upon a sledge and are all made out of gilded wood. Features of the Amarna style of art appear in the representation of the pleated dresses, 2 wrinkles under the necks and the pierced ears lobes. Each goddess is wearing the Kh3t headdress.

The Canopic Shrine of Tutankhamun


The inner part: It is also made out of gilded wood, decorated with a cavetto cornice and tours moulding with a frieze of cobras at the top. The shrine is decorated with scenes on the four sides. The scenes are representing the protective goddesses together with the appropriate son of Horus.


  

2013/12/23

The Painted Casket of Tutankhamun



Various chests were discovered in the tomb of King Tutankhamun, they were more than 50 boxes and they ranged in size from the smallest and most delicate to hold jewelry and cosmetics, to large and more functional sizes, some of them even fitted with poles to be held by priests during funerary processions.

This magnificent casket was found in the Antechamber of the tomb of Tutankhamun. It is considered one of the masterpieces of the collection of King Tutankhamun because of its excellent state of preservation and its fine quality of painting.
It is made out of wood covered with a layer of plaster or stucco then painted.

The Painted Casket of Tutankhamun

The box consists of four sides: two long one, two short ones and a lid. It is mounted on stubby legs and has two knobs for closing the box by means of tying a rope around them then sealing it. The decoration on the chest represents the official theme of triumph over chaos.

When this box was discovered it contained:
1-    A pair of papyrus sandals.
2-    3 pairs of gilded sandals.
3-    One gilded headrest.
4-    Necklaces.
5-    Labels.
6-    Embroidered ceremonial robes belonging to the king, one of them was studded with over 3000 golden rosettes.

It took Carter and his men more than 3 weeks to empty the contents of the box due to the fragile state of the contents.

What do the words “Painted Casket” mean?
The word casket means box or chest (all of these words have the same meaning). The word painted relates to its many colours.





Description:

THE TWO LONG SIDES OF THE BOX:

They have identical scenes; the only difference is that on one of them the enemies are Nubians while on the other they are Asiatics. This could be recognised from the difference in the skin colour and hairstyles of the enemies.

 The Painted Casket of Tutankhamun

The scene is enclosed by a geometric then a floral border. Beneath the pt sign, the king is represented riding his chariot, where the horses are shown at full gallop. He is shown shooting an arrow while controlling the horses by means of ropes of the reins tied around his waist which left his arms free to attack the enemy. He is wearing the blue crown of war xprS (khepresh) crown. He is protected on either side by the vulture goddess Nekhbet who is represented holding the Sn sign and he is followed by his fan bearers, and 3 sections of the Egyptian army, which are represented very well organised in contrast to the enemies on the other side facing the king who are in full disorder and among them we can see some of the men and hounds of the Egyptian army. This was one of the main features of the ancient Egyptian art; organized Egyptian army and on the contrary the enemies are in chaos.

 The Painted Casket of Tutankhamun


 THE TWO SHORT SIDES:

On each side there is a double scene showing the king in the form of a sphinx trampling his enemies one Nubian and one Asiatic, surmounted by the pt sign. At the back of the sphinx we can see the war fan also Nekhbet, the vulture goddess protecting the king with her outstretched wings holding the Shen sign, and the king himself is wearing a composite crown consisting of 2 feathers and horns with the sun disk. In the middle we have the cartouches of the King Niswtbity name: nb xprw ra : lord of the existence of re and the Sa Re name: twt anx imn hKA iwn rsyt

 
The Painted Casket of Tutankhamun

       

THE LID

The scenes on it represent the king while hunting; the idea of all scenes is confirming the victory upon the chaos. Here the king is shooting wild animals with his arrow instead of the enemies. He is shown on one side attacking lions and lioness while on the other side he is attacking other wild animals e.g. antelopes, ostriches, hyenas and wild donkeys who are skilfully represented fleeing the arrows of his majesty. 

The Painted Casket of Tutankhamun

All animals are pierced by arrows and fall victim to the king’s irresistible attack and he is accompanied by his hunting hounds.

  On either side of the lid, there is a representation of the winged solar disc symbol of Horus of Behdet.


The army in Ancient Egypt was divided into four divisions from the time of Ramesses II: the heart, the two wings and the rear. Each division carried the name of a certain god. Before Ramses II, namely since Thutmosis 3rd introduced the divisions, they were three: Amon-Re, Ptah, Re-horakhty then since the time of Ramses II Seth was added. The king always led the heart division, which was called Amon-re while the 2 wings were Ptah and Rehorahty and the rear was Seth. 

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