2012/08/09

king tut museum

 Tut Collection,king tut museum,king tut exhibit,king tut artifacts

The Tut Collection and king tut artifacts was not in Private museum but in Egyptian Museum. When Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamun's tomb, he noted that it was "the day of days, the most wonderful I have ever lived, and certainly one whose like I can never hope to see again." But the collection is not yet well known, and it took ten years for Howard Carter to finish excavating the tomb.

king tut museum


 it is probably not artifacts of the most famous group in the world, then those associated with the discovery king Tutankhamen's tomb young. the collection has traveled the world, setting attendance records most anywhere he is. While the current permanent housing is located in the basement of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, he will soon be moved to a new location in downtown.

Children of King Tutankhamun

Children of King Tutankhamun


Many non-fans of ancient Egypt tend to think of King Tut as a child who dies before reaching adulthood real, leaving the throne to his regents, Ay and Horemheb, but it was not the case. Tutankhamen was certainly old enough to have generated more than one child, and in fact it probably did. Among the shrines and chests were crammed into that part of Tutankhamun's tomb which is now designated as the Treasury was a wooden box without decoration (No. 317), which measured about 61 centimeters long. cover was originally bound in position and sealed with the jackal and nine captives, but these had been broken in antiquity. In box two miniature anthropoid coffins, one measuring 49.5 centimeters and the other 57.7 long, placed side by side, head to toe.


 Children of King Tutankhamun

 
It had been painted with resin usual black, relieved by golden bands of inscriptions referring to each occupant simply as "the Osiris", no other names. Lids were attached to bases in coffins normal conditions, using eight flat wooden dowels. strips of linen were then tied around the coffins under the chin and around the waist and ankles, and applied to each band was a clay seal, again with the impression of jackal and nine captives. After the linen bandages were removed and the covers torn off, the coffins were each found to contain a second coffin (No. 317a (1), 317b (1)). They were different coffins all their exterior surface covered with gold leaf. In these second coffins were the mummified remains of two tiny human beings.


Children of King Tutankhamun

The first mummy, no. 317a (2), was less than 30 centimeters high, and was preserved in almost perfect condition. It forms a sheet swath which it held in place with five transverse band and two longitudinal triple on the front, back and sides. A mask of gilded cartonnage well modeled and black-painted face detail has been placed on his head. While the mask was very small, it was still far too high for what was probably a fetus. Although the second Mom, no. 317b (2), was less well preserved than the first, he was also a little larger than 39.5 inches.


 It was also similar to the first wrapped with a longitudinal triple on the front, back and sides, and four transverse bands. Although a mask had evidently been prepared for her, there was no present, apparently because the embalmers have found it too small to fit on the head of the wrapped bundle. Therefore, the mask had been thrown into the embalming debris stored in the entrance hall and later buried in mass graves 54, where he found by Davis in 1907, shortly before the discovery of the tomb Tutankhamun.


Children of King Tutankhamun


Shortly after their discovery, Douglas Derry, in 1932, autopsies of these mummies. The bandages of the mummy was first removed by Howard Carter, so Derry was able to save a little over a mass of badly ordered linen close to 1.5 centimeters thick, with pads placed on the chest, legs and feet to give the beam shape. As he found the body of a fetus prematurely gray, fragile skin, through which one could see the bones. Eyebrows and eyelashes are not obvious, and the eyelids were almost closed. There was no abdominal incision, and it was not even clear how the body had been preserved. However, members were fully extended, with hands placed flat on the thighs. Even a portion of the umbilical cord has been preserved on the fetus, which measure only 25.75 inches. He determined that the body was probably that of a woman, who was probably born four months premature least.


Derry was able to unpack the second mummy itself, and under the cloth, shroud held in place by the transverse and longitudinal envelopes, he found a new set of cross tires which in turn revealed a second envelope. Under this shroud that covered the whole front of the body was a cross-layer bandages and criss-cross and a series of buffers that had evidently been inserted for stiffness and shape. Sides, legs and chest of the mummy were built with buffers other, again held in place by a bandage cross. The removal of several large coiled transversely and somewhat charred sheets covering finally revealed a final layer of delicate fabrics, which covered the body of a child measuring 36.1 centimeters in length. Again, if the body was rather less well preserved than the first, Derry said it was probably a female child, born nearly two months prematurely.


Members of this child were, however, fully extended but with the hand placed beside rather than on the thighs. Although the skin was gray, he stayed for some down to the scalp. In addition, eyebrows and eyelashes were visible, and the eyes were open and still contained eyes narrowed. On this child, the method of embalming was obvious. The skull had been packed with cloth soaked in salt inserted through the nose, and an incision Derry noted embalmer tiny, just over 1.8 inches in length, just above and parallel to the inguinal ligament (groin). In addition salt impregnated cloth was introduced into the abdominal cavity through this cut, and according to Derry, sealed on the resin. However, later analysis has identified that the sealant modified animal tissues.


Derry has determined that the child died at or shortly after birth. The umbilical cord, which seems to have been cut close to the abdominal wall, has not dried up because it would have had the baby survived for any length of time after birth. Further consideration of the second child was later made by a team from the University of Liverpool led by Professor RG Harrison. In this examination, radiography revealed evidence to suggest that the child was suffering from a condition known as Sprengel deformity, with congenitally high right shoulder blade, spina bifida and scoliosis. This time, however, the age suggested by the X-ray was at best only a month premature, if the mandate is not complete.


Although there has been speculation contrary, most researchers seem to believe that it is the children of Tutankhamun by his wife, Ankhesenamun, because it is not known to have had another wife. It should also be noted that there is some evidence (small) as spina bifida may be the result of incest. We believe that Ankhesenamun was probably half-sister of Tutankhamen.




King Tutankhamun Death Facts

The Death of King Tut

It all stacked. It was all circumstantial evidence, as such, but often this is all ancient mysteries investigators must continue. Yet the latest findings on the death of King Tut (Tutankhamun) seem definitely indicate that he died of natural causes, rather than being murdered. Specifically, the latest report is that he died of gangrene caused by a broken leg.

King Tutankhamun Death Facts
  
There were more than a little reason to believe that King Tut may have been murdered. The two main suspects, Aye, who succeeded him as king, and General Horemhab who in turn succeeded Aye to the throne, both seem to have been powerful men who, in effect, ruled Egypt during King Tut was a child. It would not at all unreasonable to believe that, as King Tut grew up in a young man, the two older men would have felt to lose much of their power. In addition, at the time of his death, King Tut was certainly old enough to have generated an heir to the throne itself, which would at least technically eliminated Aye and Horemhab of ever ascending the throne. It should also be noted that the young king Tutankhamun was much loved in ancient Egypt for the restoration of the priesthood of Amun, after the death of his father's alleged heretic Akhenaten. However, this was almost certainly the work of Aye and General Horemhab, which could have still felt Tut receive all the glory of their work.

 
Finally, there was the question of the widow of Tutankhamun, Ankhespaton, which was apparently forced to marry Aye after the death of King Tut. Only a short time later, she disappeared into the annals of history, leading to speculation that she too could have been murdered. These circumstances all contribute to an ancient mystery, and much intrigue, a situation that was not completely unusual in Egyptian royal court. Attempts have been, and would be made to murder pharaohs, some of which were successful. Usually, they appear to have been drawn inside the harem in order to raise her son to the throne of a woman more than another. Now, we are told, in absolute terms, that King Tut died of natural causes. However, lets take a look closer.


One of the most interesting aspects of Egyptology is that different experts frequently present their interpretation of events as absolute, especially in books or releases to the public, the general neglect to reveal opposing views . This happens all the time, often with an expert asserting absolutely one conclusion, while another says absolutely a completely different conclusion. For example, the debates continue to rage over who was actually King Menes, the founder of the first ancient Egyptian dynasty, with some scholars stating unequivocally that it was Aha, with others still believing that he would been Narmer. In the case of King Tut, we must first remember that his mummy is not in very good condition today. When Carter discovered, his team basically dismantled the corpse while looking for amulets and other jewelry.


 In addition, many of his plays to present the initial review by Carter are now extinct, and skin and bones were broken in many places, so called also by the team of Carter. Dr. Zahi Hawass, the director of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA), made some interesting comments on the latest discoveries about King Tut. Although it seems to be most consistent with these findings, he argues, for example, that "... some team members (not all) have interpreted a fracture in the left femur as evidence of the possibility that Tutankhamun broke his leg badly just before he died. "

 
He goes on to explain that:


"The team noted a fractured left femur inferior (femur) at the epiphyseal plate fracture This seems different from the many breaks caused by Carter's team:. It has irregular edges rather than sharp, and there are two layers of embalming significant portion present inside. team believes that the embalming material indicates that this can only have occurred during life or the embalming process, and can not have been caused by Carter's team. They note that this type of fracture, unlike most others, is possible in young men in their late teens, and argue that it is more likely that happened during life. There is no clear evidence for healing (although there may be some present, and masked by the embalming material). Since the associated skin wound would still have been open This fracture should have happened a short time, days at most, before death. team Carter noted that the patella (kneecap) on this leg was loose (now it is completely separate, and, in fact, been wrapped with the left hand), perhaps suggesting further damage to this region of the body. 


Part of the team that supports this theory also notes a fracture of the right patella and right leg . Based on this evidence, they suggest the king may have suffered an accident in which he broke his leg badly, leaving an open wound. Although the break itself would not have been fatal infection might have set in. However, this part of the team believes it is possible, although less likely, that this fracture was caused by the embalmers. " "Part of the team believes that the above scenario is absolutely not possible. They argue that the fracture mentioned above can be done by Carter's team during extraction of the body of the coffin. They argue that if such a fracture suffered in life, there was evidence of hemorrhage or hematoma present in the scanner. They believe the embalming liquid was pushed into the fracture by Carter's team. "
 

King Tutankhamun Death Facts

King Tutankhamun Death Facts

 The Death of King Tut


However, one of the main reasons why murder has ragged on as a possible cause of Tutankhamun's death is due to a fracture in the back of his head. Revealed in an X-ray of his mummy made by the University of Liverpool, a trauma specialist at Long Island University in the United States has theorized that the coup was not caused by an accident. However, according to Dr Hawass,


"The entire team agrees that there is no evidence of this murder in the skull of Tutankhamun. There is no area in the back of the skull that indicates a sudden partially cured. There are two bone fragments loose in the skull. These can not have been an injury from before death, as they would have stuck in the embalming material. The scientific team has matched these pieces to the fractured vertebra cervical and foramen magnum, and believes these were broken either during the embalming process or by Carter's team. "


  
Thus, while other recent news coverage seems to indicate that all issues surrounding the death of Tutankhamun have been answered, at least for some scholars, they have not. Perhaps, once all the results of the recent CAT analysis were released, everyone can agree, but there always seems to be some question, at least according to Dr Hawass, at least one part of the team that reviewed the CAT scans disagree with the conclusion that absolute gangrene caused by a broken leg caused the death of Tutankhamen.


In fact, Dr. Hawass reveal in the media these last that we are not really completely sure how King Tut died, but we know that it was not murder. We always had the utmost respect for Dr. Hawass, as we continue to have, but it has long been suggested as a hypothesis that King Tut may have been poisoned, so actually, if we are not certain whether how he died, and murder can not yet be ruled.


Mummy Curse of Tutankhamun

Mummy Curse of Tutankhamun



In November of 1922,  Howard Carter discovered the tomb of Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of Luxor, the world was very different than it is today. It was not the time now, the live television coverage by investigative journalists. Instead, the media still belonged to the newspapers, and information made ​​much slower and less reliable. There was a time more superstitious, and the media has been fully resolved to take advantage of the attribute to sell their publications. There was a time when journalists often simply made ​​up facts to dramatize their stories, and in print, people believed them.

The treasures that Howard Carter discovered in Tutankhamun's tomb were factually sensational, and so the media went into a frenzy covering the event, and the world paid attention.


In late March of 1923, a novelist named Mari Corelli (Mary Mackay) published a warning that there would have disastrous consequences for all those who had entered the sealed tomb. Perhaps this revelation was inspired by the fact that the day Howard Carter opened the tomb, his canary was swallowed by a cobra. Cobras, as the goddess Wadjet, were the protectors of the Pharaoh.

Lord Carnarvon financed explorations Howard Carter. He had been in poor health for over 20 years following a car accident. When he died of pneumonia in Cairo April 5, 1923, just weeks after Mari Corelli's warnings, newspapers and other media around the world simply gone mad. More often than not they have the facts as they went along. Even Conan Doyle, the creator of Sherlock Holmes and himself a believer in the occult and at that time a very popular writer, has announced that Lord Carnarvon's death could have been the result of a "Curse of the Pharaoh".




It was said that at the moment of Lord Carnarvon's death, the lights went out in Cairo (an event that is still not uncommon today), and that back in England his dog, susie, howled and died in the same instant. These reported events are difficult to prove or disprove.

However, other facts were simply invented by the press.  One newspaper printed a curse reportedly found in the tomb:

"They who enter this sacred tomb shall swift be visited by wings of death."

There was no such curse, but there was one inscription found on an Anubis shrine that stated: "It is I who hinder the sand from choking the secret chamber.  I am for the protection of the deceased". This was correctly reported to the public, but one reporter added his won words to the inscription: "and I will kill all those who cross this threshold into the sacred precincts of the Royal King who lives forever."

In addition, newspapers appear to have arbitrarily killed off many of the people surrounding the tomb's discovery.  According to one list, 26 people associated with the find died within a decade of its discovery.  In reality, only six people died during this first decade, while many others lived to an old age.

For example, the curse should have laid squarely on the shoulders of Howard Carter himself, but he lived another 17 years, dying just prior to his 65th birthday.  Yet he had spent about a decade working in the tomb. Others likewise lived long and fruitful lives.  The following table provides the names and information of others involved in the discovery:

Name Died Age Function Comment
Adamson, Richard 1980+ 81+ Guard who slept in tomb
Benedite, Georges 1926 69 Louvre representative Died of heat stroke
Bethell, Richard 1929
Carter's personal secretary Died in London
Breasted, James H. 1935 70 Univ. of Chicago archaeologist
Bruyere, Bernard 1965+ 80+

Burton, Harry 1939+
Photographer Highly involved in project
Callender, A. R. 1939
Assistant to Carter Present at all tomb procedures
Capart, Jean 1947 70 Belgian Archaeologist
Derry, Douglas 1969 87 Cairo University anatomist Analyzed Tut's mummy
Engelbach, Reginald 1946 58 Cairo Museum
Gardiner, Sir Alan 1963 84 Philologist Handled all written material in tomb
Hall, Lindsley F. 1939+
Draftsman Present at all tomb procedures
Hauser, Walter 1939+
Draftsman Present at all tomb procedures
Herbert, Lady Evelyn 1980 78 Daughter of Lord Carnarvon Entered tomb when opened
Kuentz, Charles 1939+


Lacau, Pierre 1965 92 Egyptologist Intimately involved - all operations
Lefebvre, Gustave 1957 78 Cairo Museum
Lucas, Alfred 1950+ 79 Chemist for Egypt Government
Lythgoe, A. M. 1934 66 Metropolitan Museum (NYC)
Mace, Arthur C. 1928
Metropolitan Museum (NYC)
Winlock, Herbert E. 1950 66 Metropolitan Museum (NYC)
Sheikh Hussein 1997 87


Origins of the curse of the mummy

As many may think, the curse of the mummy was not born with the discovery of Tutankhamen's tomb. A researcher (Dominic Montserrat) believes that the story of the mummy's curse actually originates in the 1820s with an English author and a strange scene striptease act where state mummies were unwrapped. The show, which took place near Piccadilly Circus in London in 1821, seems to have inspired a little-known novelist named Jane Loudon Webb to write a fantastic book called, "The Mummy".


This book was set in the 22nd century and featured an angry, vengeful mummy who came back to life and threatened to strangle the books hero. Then in 1828, a children's book called "The Fruit of the company" was published that had mummies on fire by the explorers who used them as torches to explore a mysterious Egyptian pyramid. Of course, the mummies were portrayed as vengeful particular consultant. In 1869, the concept of the mummy's curse became clearer when, Louisa May Alcott, author of Little Women, wrote a novel called "Lost in a Pyramid: The Curse of the Mummy".

 
In this tale, an explorer again uses a mummy like a torch to illuminate the interior of a pyramid. He discovers some seeds in the pyramid, and brings them back to America. His fiancee decided to plant the seeds, which grow flowers grotesque. During their marriage, she wares one of the flowers and their fragrance breathe, sending him into a coma, as she becomes a living mummy. Other novelists also developed stories along the lines of the curse of the mummies, both in England and America over the next 30 years.
Even in the late 1970's the curse seems to have remained active. While the rooms were on tour and San Francisco, a policeman guarding the funerary mask of Tutankhamun gold claimed he had a slight attack because of the curse. A judge rejected that claim, but visits around the internet today still provide some information wildly inventive. Some websites refer to the fact that, in 1969, only two members of the original excavation team had avoided the curse. Of course, being some 46 years after the discovery of the tomb, even the youngest members of the professional team would probably have been in their seventies or beyond!

But then again ....

We realize that the bodies have the ability to reproduce the infections that can be very dangerous to life. It is very possible that the ancient tomb robbers, entering tombs shortly after the death of Pharaoh, may have been exposed to diseases, and thus died for their crimes. Indeed, it could very likely lead to an ancient belief in the "mummy's curse". In fact, the ancient pharaohs to great lengths to protect their tombs, and probably would have been happy willing to assist in the dissemination of such beliefs.

Today, archaeologists wear protective clothing when unwrapping mummies. In 1999, Gotthard Kramer, a German microbiologist from the University of Leipzip, suggested that there might be some truth to the curse of the mummies. Studying 40 different mummies, he identified several potentially dangerous mold spores. He believes that when tombs were first opened, fresh air may have disturbed these spores, blowing them up, and perhaps, create health problems.

The curse as a blessing

In reality, the mummy's curse has probably done more good then bad. Many early films were made ​​about the curse, in addition to the extensive media coverage. Even today, films continue to be made with at least one underlying meaning of the curse. All this has repeatedly bought an interest in Egyptology in the world, and there is no doubt about the benefits that the curse has granted to the tourism industry in Egypt.

Even Tutankhamun himself might have been pleased with the discovery of his tomb. The ancient Egyptians believed that their souls were kept alive when their name was recalled, and this was provided.

Meaning of the name of Tutankhamun


Meaning of the name of Tutankhamun
 





Meaning of the name of Tutankhamun

The name "Tutankhamun" is derived from the hieroglyphs which translate as Tut-ankh-amun meaning the "Living Image of Amun." Today, many people refer to him as Tut. He was the son of king Akhenaten. When Tut was born, he was given the name Tutankhaten meaning the "Living Image of the Aten" - the Aten was the single god worshipped during the rule Akhenaten, the king who is believed to have been the father of Tutankhamun 
Not long after Tutankhaten became Pharaoh, there was a Revolution form the prestws of got amun agnist the Cult of god Atun  and Tut's name was changed to Tutankhamun. These days, Tut's name is found with differing spellings, including Tutankhamun, Tutankhamen and Tutankhamon. In reality, we cannot be sure how the ancient Egyptians pronounced the name as they did not write vowels. (Some hieroglyphs are transliterated as vowels, since they are weak consonants). Egyptologists add vowels to assist in communicating information.



king Tut

The most famous pharaoh of Egypt today is, without doubt, Tutankhamun. King boy died in his late teens and remained at rest in the valley of the kings of Egypt for over 3300 years. All that changed in November 1922, when Tutankhamun's tomb was discovered by British Egyptologist Howard Carter who was excavating on behalf of his patron, Lord Carnarvon. His tomb almost escaped discovery and could have been discovered to date. Carter had been searching for the tomb of a number of years and Carnarvon had decided that the time and money had been spent with little return.


king Tut



 However, Carter managed to persaude her boss to fund one more season and a few days before the start of the tomb was found. Today, the tomb contains the remains of the pharaoh, hidden from view inside the outermost of three coffins. It is the only pharaoh still residing in the Valley of the Kings - as far as we know! The tomb itself is very small and seems to have been for someone of lesser importance. Tutankhamun died unexpectedly early because of the changes precipitated the fall to accommodate the pharaoh. (Color tomb copyright illustration layout by Mr. Rigby.)

The only part of the complex that contains wall paintings is the burial chamber. One of the scenes, shown below, shows the opening ceremony of the mouth where the senses are restored to the deceased Tutankhamun. In this case, the person performing this duty is Ay, who became the next pharaoh. Photograph of the mural - not copyright postcard. It contained four gilded shrines nested one inside the other. The deepest of these covered a stone sarcophagus. Inside that were three coffins - the innermost being made of 110 kilograms of solid gold. Inside that was the pharaoh himself wearing the famous gold mask.

king Tut

Adjacent to the burial chamber was the so-called Treasury, which was home to much of the support materials for beyond Tutankhamun. It contained a dazzling array of boats, gilded figures and canopic chest in which were various internal organs belonging to the former king. Gathered around the chest in their protective position were four beautiful gilded figures of goddesses. Just at the entrance of the room was black cover figure of Anubis as a jackal recumbant.


The antechamber content dismantled chariots, food containers, various funeral couches, thrones, and two black figures guardian at the entrance to the burial chamber. It is this area that was first seen when Carter made a hole in the lock-off until the end of the inlet passage. An annex was little jumble of other equipment. Carter found the tomb had been broken twice in a short time after the pharaoh was buried.  


After each break in the tomb was sealed by officials of the necropolis. Fortunately, the grave robbers do not go out with and too much of the material sealed with Tutankhamun may now be viewed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo with some articles in the Luxor Museum.



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