Irrigation Methods in Ancient Egypt

The Egyptians depended on the annual Nile flood to cover their fields of black silt and to irrigate their crops. They measured the flood to determine their taxes. They built canals and dams so that water could be transported from the Nile for irrigation and drinking. The Egyptians created tools to help collect water from the Nile to the surface fields.

Egyptian Irrigation methods

Mandolins and means of irrigation in ancient Egypt :

The ancient Egyptians dug canals to direct water to places far from the banks of the Nile and used the chadouf, a FLIR, to bring water from the Nile or a canal to higher areas.

A sweep is a long pole which pivots on a high post and is used to raise and lower a bucket of water from a river or canal. This is illustrated in the tomb of the API, in Deir el-Medina.

Water was also transported in jugs that have been made ​​with a yoke, which is illustrated in some scenes of everyday life.

The ancient Egyptians dug along a canal called Bahr Yousuf to bring water from the Nile to the Fayoum depression for irrigation.

The tanbour tool for raising water
(irrigation systems) :

Increase the water level from the Nile to the surface of agricultural land was a very important activity in Egypt. An invention called the tanbur made ​​this task easier. The well-known scientist, Archimedes invented the tanbur during his stay in Alexandria and named the "Archimedes screw."

Egyptian Irrigation methods
Ancient Egyptian irrigation methods

It consists of a piece of wood in the form of a screw surrounded by a disk nestled. The lower part of the tanbur is placed in water and rotated, causing the water to the height higher levels. The tanbur has been adopted by many generations of Egyptians to the present.
Egyptian peasants still use it in times of low water levels.


king tut research

Recent investigations 2010:

In February 2010 the results of a study  conducted on the DNA of the family of Tutankhamun were revealed. This project was called “Tutankhamun family project”, and it lasted for two years from Sept 2007 till Oct. 2009. The study was conducted through the Egyptian Mummy Project (EMP) headed by Dr. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, and a team composed of Egyptian scientists from the National Research Center, members from the Faculty of Medicine at Cairo University, and two German DNA specialists.

king tut research

11 royal mummies of the family of Tutankhamun were studied using radiology and DNA technology. These mummies came from KV 35, 55, 62 and 21A and B. (Only three of these mummies’ identities were certain: Yuya, Thuya and Amenhotep III, in addition to the mummy of Tut).
They concluded that:
-    Yuya and Thuya were identified as great-grandparents of Tutankhamun and Amenhotep III
-    Amenhotep III and KV 35 Elder Lady (Ty) as his grandparents
-    KV 55 male (Akhenaten) and KV 35 Younger Lady are his sibling parents.
-    Amenhotep III could be clearly identified as father of KV 55 male (Akhenaten) and the testing of Amenhotep III as father of Tutankhamun was negative.
SO the results showed that the mummy of KV 55 is the son of Amenhotep III and father of Tutankhamun leading to the assumption that KV 55 male can be certainly identified as Akhenaten. Also KV 35 Elder Lady was identified as daughter of Yuya and Thuya indicating that she could be queen Ty.
    To sum up:

1.Concerning his Parentage:

Recent evidence, however, has indicated that he was in fact born in Tell el-Amarna. It had been revealed that Tutankhamun’s father was the “heretic” king, Akhenaten, whose body is now almost certainly identified with the mummy from KV 55 in the Valley of the Kings. His mother, who still cannot be identified by name, is the “Younger Lady” buried in the tomb of Amenhotep II (KV 35). The mummy of the “Elder Lady” from the same tomb can now be conclusively identified as Tutankhamun’s grandmother, Queen Ty.

The project is not yet able to identify Tutankhamun’s mother by name, although the DNA studies also show that she was the daughter of Amenhotep III and Ty and thus Akhenaten’s full sister. Thus Tutankhamun’s only grandparents, on both his paternal and maternal sides, were Amenhotep III and Ty.

2.Concerning his Wife:

Two stillborn foetuses were found mummified and hidden away in a chamber of Tutankhamun’s tomb. Preliminary DNA analysis supports the Egyptological belief that these were children of the young king’s. This analysis has also suggested a mummy known as KV21A, a royal female whose identity was previously completely unknown, as the most likely mother of these children and thus as Tutankhamun’s wife. As Tutankhamun’s only known consort was Ankhsenamun, the daughter of Akhenaten and his chief queen Nefertiti, further study of this mummy should help to illuminate further the complex relationships within this family.

3.Concerning his Death:

New light was shed on the cause of death for Tutankhamun with the discovery of DNA from the parasite that causes malaria ; it is likely that the young king died from complications resulting from a severe form of this disease.

Medicinal foodstuffs (i.e., drugs to fight fever and pain) found within the tomb support the team’s contention that the young king suffered from a severe malarial infection. The CT scan also revealed that the king had a lame foot, caused by avascular bone necrosis (a disease known as Kohler disease, affecting the blood supply of the bone leading to degeneration of the bone) . This conclusion is supported Egyptologically by the presence of over one hundred walking sticks in the tomb and by images of the king performing activities such as hunting while seated.

The project believes that Tutankhamun’s death was most likely a result of the malaria coupled with his generally weak constitution. The CT scan of the pharaoh earlier confirmed the presence of an unhealed break in the king’s left thigh bone; the team speculates that the king’s weakened state may have led to a fall, or that a fall weakened his already fragile physical condition.

This is a figure showing the family tree of Tutankhamun as concluded by the “Tutankhamun Family Project”, published in Feb 2010.

Images of king tutankhamun

These are some pictures of King Tutankhamun

To see more about king tut visit

Images of king tutankhamun
Images of king tutankhamun 

 Images of king tutankhamun
Images of king tutankhamun

Images of king tutankhamun

Images of king tutankhamun

To see more about king tut visit


Ancient Egyptian Religion

Ancient Egyptian society was highly influenced by religious ideals strongly associated with tradition, which caused them to resist change. Egyptian civilisation was rooted primarily on rituals and worship. "Egyptians did not question the beliefs which had been handed down to them" (Pg. 81, David, 1988) Divine Kingship was one of those beliefs. Divine Kingship is the belief that the Pharaoh was not only the King (political ruler) but also a god. Due to their beliefs, the Pharaoh held an immense amount of power.

Ancient Egyptian Religion

He acted as the intermediary between his people and the gods, and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe. Therefore, the state dedicated enormous resources to the performance of these rituals and to the construction of the temples where they were carried out. The popular religious tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the pharaoh declined.

Ancient Egypt had a complex polytheistic religion. They believed in the multitude of gods. They also worshipped natural forces like sun. Their religion hosted about 700 different gods and goddesses. In addition, it was not uncommon for deities to be combined to form a new deity. Belief in afterlife constitutes the essence of ancient Egypt religious belief. They believed the physical body had to be preserved to allow a place for their spirit to dwell in the afterlife. Thus came into existence, the process of mummification to preserve the body. In addition, large pyramids were constructed as tombs for the pharaohs in the Old Kingdom.

Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods and each city had a temple built for the god of that city. Temple was the centre of worship where men were to communicate to gods. The priest's duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs. The priests had many duties such as funeral rites, teaching school, supervising the artists and works, and advising people on problems. The Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in the progress to a better life in the next world. They believed in reaching to their potential after death. Each person was thought to have three souls.

On account of the death of a person, prayers were recited by the priests and a final attempt was made to revive the deceased. The body was then washed and purified in a special shelter called an Ibu.  The body was then taken the wabet, which was the embalmer's workshop. A cut was made in the left side, and all the organs were removed and stored in containers known as canopic jars.

The body was then packed with a salt called natron for a period of forty days after which the insides were filled with linen or sawdust, resin and natron. The body was wrapped in bandages with jewellery and amulets between the layers. A portrait mask was placed over the head of the deceased by the Chief Embalmer, who wore a jackal mask to represent Anubis. The wrapped body, or mummy, was put into a coffin.

Ancient Egyptian Religion video

Burial Tombs

Belief in afterlife constitutes the essence of ancient Egypt religious belief. They believed the physical body had to be preserved to allow a place for their spirit to dwell in the afterlife. Thus came into existence, the process of mummification to preserve the body. In addition, large pyramids were constructed as tombs for the pharaohs in the Old Kingdom. After a period of about 70 days, in which the mummification process took place, the mummy was placed in a decorated coffin. Furniture, carved statues, games, food, and other items useful to the next life were prepared to be buried with the mummy.

The last ritual performed by the priest on the mummy was called the Opening of the Mouth. This ceremony was to magically give the deceased the ability to speak and eat again, and to have full use of his body. After placing the mummy in the sarcophagus, the tomb was sealed. The remnants of Egyptian religion still stand high in the form of Egyptian Pyramids, one of the wonders of the world.


Ancient Egyptian Paintings

The oldest sculptures and paintings older who have come down to our time are the work of the ancient Egyptian artists who lived nearly four thousand years before the Christian era. It would look as if the sculpture and painting were twins twins born of the fruitful Nile, and thus the parallel antiquity

But the art of painting involves first the art of drawing and the art of drawing is much older than that of sculpture. He is older than the age-old civilization of Egypt. It is almost as old as man himself. The paintings that decorated the walls of tombs in Egypt were designed to keep alive the story.

Ancient Egyptian Paintings
Ancient Egyptian Paintings

Ancient Egyptian Paintings
Ancient Egyptian Paintings

Moved to us a lot of information about the daily life and customs of ancient Egyptian through what was left to us drawings on the walls, the ancient Egyptian was excelled in painting, sculpture and graphic formats such as
1 - Tombs of Memphis necropolis in Giza, Abu Sir, Saqqara and Dahshur, which is for senior men of the Old kingdom

  2 - the rock tombs of Beni Hassan about 2000 BC. in Minya Governorate

Ancient Egyptian Paintingas distinguish by special features that the artist depicts the person's body so that it is in the development of the face, while the vision in the development of both sides of the head.
Composition of colors

The ancient Egyptians used eight colors, including the original four colors, namely:

1 - White and was attending a neighborhood of lime (calcium carbonate) or gypsum (calcium sulphate

2 - Yellow is the color of a metal is made from iron ore (ocher) and brought from Aswan and oases

3 - Red and is made from iron ore is also a red

4 - Blue is of two types (a) natural copper ore from Sinai to the color blue (Ozorit) (b) glass material made ​​of iron filings + Almlakhitt (copper ore) + Mtron

 Ancient Egyptian Paintings
Ancient Egyptian Paintings
The four non-original colors are:

1 - green, and is extracted from the Almlakhitt or glass material of the blue with yellow ocher (iron ore as well)

2 - brown red color plus black

3 - gray white plus black

4 - Black, one of three sources: (a) soot (soot) (b) carbonization of acacia wood (c) of manganese (which is often a black stone from Sinai).

And used adhesives in paste colors and installed:

1 - Materials albumen from egg whites, and is used a lot in cemeteries fees coloring .

2 - material composed of resin glue plus material Alolfonah3 - organic material made up of glue.

Ancient Egyptian Paintings Video

The images and models found in Egyptian tombs were connected with the idea of ​​providing the soul with companions in the other world. These murals provide the extraordinary lively picture of life as lived thousands of years ago in Egypt. And yet, looking at art for the first time, can find a rather strange looking. What mattered most was not pretty, but completeness.

 It was the duty of artists to preserve everything as clearly and permanently as possible. So they have not sought to sketch nature as it seemed from any angle fortuitous. They drew from memory, according to strict rules that ensure that everything had to go into the picture would stand out in perfect clarity.